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  1. Aravind SR, Joseph MM, George SK, Dileep KV, Varghese S, Rose-James A, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2015 Feb;59:153-66.
    PMID: 25541375 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.11.019
    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, without causing significant toxicity in normal tissues. We previously reported that galactoxyloglucan (PST001) possesses significant antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. However, the exact mechanism in mediating this anticancer effect is unknown. This study, for the first time, indicated that PST001 sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer (A549) and nasopharyngeal (KB) cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In vitro studies suggested that PST001 induced apoptosis primarily via death receptors and predominantly activated caspases belonging to the extrinsic apoptotic cascade. Microarray profiling of PST001 treated A549 and KB cells showed the suppression of survivin (BIRC5) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, as well as increased cytochrome C. TaqMan low density array analysis of A549 cells also confirmed that the induction of apoptosis by the polysaccharide occurred through the TRAIL-DR4/DR5 pathways. This was finally confirmed by in silico analysis, which revealed that PST001 binds to TRAIL-DR4/DR5 complexes more strongly than TNF and Fas ligand-receptor complexes. In summary, our results suggest the potential of PST001 to be developed as an anticancer agent that not only preserves innate biological activity of TRAIL, but also sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
  2. Hung TH, Chen CM, Tseng CP, Shen CJ, Wang HL, Choo KB, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2014 Aug;53:55-65.
    PMID: 24814288 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.04.011
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer is a major clinical problem in chemotherapy of cancer patients. We have noted inappropriate PKCδ hypomethylation and overexpression of genes in the PKCδ/AP-1 pathway in the human uterus sarcoma drug-resistant cell line, MES-SA/Dx5 cells, which also overexpress p-glycoprotein (ABCB1). Recent studies have indicated that FZD1 is overexpressed in both multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and in clinical tumor samples. These data have led us to hypothesize that the FZD1-mediated PKCδ signal-transduction pathway may play an important role in drug resistance in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. In this work, the PKCδ inhibitor Rottlerin was found to reduce ABCB1 expression and to inhibit the MDR drug pumping ability in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells when compared with the doxorubicin-sensitive parental cell line, MES-SA. PKCδ was up-regulated with concurrent up-regulation of the mRNA levels of the AP-1-related factors, c-JUN and c-FOS. Activation of AP-1 also correlated with up-regulation of the AP-1 downstream genes HGF and EGR1. Furthermore, AP-1 activities were reduced and the AP-1 downstream genes were down-regulated in Rottlerin-treated or PKCδ shRNA-transfected cells. MES-SA/Dx5 cells were resensitized to doxorubicin-induced toxicity by co-treatment with doxorubicin and Rottlerin or PKCδ shRNA. In addition, cell viability and drug pump-out ability were significantly reduced in the FZD1 inhibitor curcumin-treated and FZD1 shRNA-knockdown MES-SA/Dx5 cells, indicating involvement of PKCδ in FZD1-modulated ABCB1 expression pathway. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FZD1 regulates PKCδ, and the PKCδ/AP-1 signalling transduction pathway plays an important role in drug resistance in MES-SA/Dx5 cells.
  3. Chew CH, Chew GS, Najimudin N, Tengku-Muhammad TS
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2007;39(10):1975-86.
    PMID: 17616429
    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha has been implicated as a regulator of acute phase response genes in hepatocytes. Interleukin-6 is widely known as a major cytokine responsible in the regulation of acute phase proteins and, therefore, acute phase response. Unfortunately, to date, very little is understood about the molecular mechanisms by which interleukin-6 regulates the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha. Here, we report the molecular mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha was regulated by interleukin-6 in human HepG2 cells. Interleukin-6 was shown to down-regulate the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha gene expression at the level of gene transcription. Functional dissection of human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha promoter B revealed the role of predicted CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein binding site (-164/+34) in mediating the interleukin-6 inhibitory effects on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha mRNA expression and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the binding of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein isoforms to this cis-acting elements was increased in interleukin-6-treated HepG2 cells. Co-transfection experiments, then, demonstrated that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta either in homodimer or heterodimer with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta plays a predominant role in inhibiting the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha promoter B, thus, reducing the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha mRNA expression. These studies, therefore, suggest a novel mechanism for interleukin-6-mediated inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha gene expression that involves the activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein isoforms with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta may play a major role.
  4. Warrier S, Marimuthu R, Sekhar S, Bhuvanalakshmi G, Arfuso F, Das AK, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2016 06;75:104-11.
    PMID: 27063405 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.04.002
    The extracellular ligand, Wnt, and its receptors are involved in sign al transduction and play an important role in axis formation and neural development. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), a decrease of the intracellular Wnt effector, β-catenin, has been linked to amyloid-β-peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Despite this knowledge, targeting Wnt inhibitors as potential biomarkers has not been explored, and harnessing Wnt activators as therapeutic candidates remains largely not investigated. A wide acting family of Wnt mediators, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), has not been probed so far as molecular indicators of disease occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's. Unlike the effect of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of Wnt antagonists on AD, the sFRP molecules have a more pleiotropic impact on the Wnt signaling cascade and probably have a far-reaching involvement in neurodegeneration. The role of sFRPs has been poorly described in AD, and in this review, we analyze the present status of the role of sFRPs on neurodegeneration, their likely involvement, and potential implications in treatment modalities of AD. This information would provide valuable clues for the development of potential therapeutic targets for aberrant neurodegenerative disorders.
  5. Katouah H, Chen A, Othman I, Gieseg SP
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2015 Oct;67:34-42.
    PMID: 26255116 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2015.08.001
    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to be a significant contributor to the death of macrophage cells observed in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Using human-derived U937 cells we have examined the effect of cytotoxic oxLDL on oxidative stress and cellular catabolism. Within 3h of the addition of oxLDL, there was a rapid, concentration dependent rise in cellular reactive oxygen species followed by the loss of cellular GSH, and the enzyme activity of both glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aconitase. The loss of these catabolic enzymes was accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP and lower lactate generation. Addition of the macrophage antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin inhibited the ROS generation, glutathione loss and catabolic inactivation. NOX was shown to be activated by oxLDL addition while apocynin inhibited the loss of GSH and cell viability. The data suggests that oxLDL triggers an excess of ROS production through NOX activation, and catabolic failure through thiol oxidation resulting in cell death.
  6. Khor ES, Wong PF
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2018 Aug;101:64-73.
    PMID: 29857052 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2018.05.016
    Accumulation of senescent endothelial cells can contribute to endothelium dysfunction. Suppression of MTOR signaling has been shown to delay senescence but the mechanism that underpins this effect, particularly one that involves miRNAs, remains to be further defined. This study sought to identify miRNAs involved in MTORC1-mediated inhibition of replicative senescence in endothelial cells. Pre-senescent HUVECs were prolonged treated with low dose rapamycin (1 nM), an MTOR inhibitor. Rapamycin treatment down-regulated the phosphorylated MTOR, RPS6 and 4EBP1 expressions, which confirmed MTORC1 suppression. Prolonged low dose rapamycin treatment has significantly reduced the percentage of senescence-associated beta galactosidase (SA-β gal) positively stained senescent cells and P16INK4A expression in these cells. On the contrary, the percentage of BrdU-labelled proliferating cells has significantly increased. RPTOR, a positive regulator of MTORC1 was knockdown using RPTOR siRNA to inhibit MTORC1 activation. RPTOR knockdown was evidenced by significant suppressions of RPTOR mRNA and protein expression levels. In these cells, the expression of miR-107 was down-regulated whereas miR-145-5p and miR-217 were up-regulated. Target gene prediction revealed PTEN as the target of miR-107 and this was confirmed by biotin pull-down assay. Over-expression of miR-107 has decreased PTEN expression, increased MTORC1 activity, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and up-regulated P16INK4A expression but mitigated tube formation. Collectively, our findings revealed that delayed endothelial replicative senescence caused by the inhibition of MTORC1 activation could be modulated by miR-107 via its influence on PTEN.
  7. Jamal J, Roebuck MM, Lee SY, Frostick SP, Abbas AA, Merican AM, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2020 09;126:105800.
    PMID: 32673644 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2020.105800
    OBJECTIVES: To compare mechanobiological response of synovial fibroblasts (SFb) from OA patient cohorts under mechanical load and inflammatory stressors for better understanding of SFb homeostatic functions.

    METHODS: Primary SFb isolated from knee synovium of OA obese (OA-ob:SFb), OA-pre-obese (OA-Pob:SFb), non-OA arthroscopic (scope:SFb), and non-OA arthroscopic with cartilage damage (scope-CD:SFb) were exposed to OA-conditioned media (OACM), derived from OA obese (OA-ob:CM), OA-pre-obese (OA-Pob:CM), and mechanical stretch at either 0 %, 6 % or 10 % for 24 h. Differences in the mRNA levels of genes involved in extracellular matrix production, inflammation and secretory activity were measured.

    RESULTS: Despite the significant BMI differences between the OA-ob and OA-Pob groups, OA-Pob has more patients with underlying dyslipidaemia, and low-grade synovitis with higher levels of secreted proteins, CXCL8, COL4A1, CCL4, SPARC and FGF2 in OA-Pob:CM. All primary SFb exhibited anti-proliferative activity with both OA-CM. Mechanical stretch stimulated lubricin production in scope:SFb, higher TGFβ1 and COL1A1 expressions in scope-CD:SFb. OA-Pob:CM stimulated greater detrimental effects than the OA-ob:CM, with higher pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1β, IL6, COX2 and proteases such as aggrecanases, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, and lower ECM matrix, COL1A1 expressions in all SFb. OA-ob:SFb were unresponsive but expressed higher pro-inflammatory cytokines under OA-Pob:CM treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Both mechanical and inflammatory stressors regulate SFb molecular functions with heterogeneity in responses that are dependent on their pathological tissue of origins. While mechanical stretch promotes a favorable effect with enhanced lubricin production in scope:SFb and TGFβ1 and COL1A1 in scope-CD:SFb, the presence of excessively high OA-associated inflammatory mediators in OA-Pob:CM, predominantly SPARC, CXCL8 and FGF2 drive all SFb regardless of pathology, towards greater pro-inflammatory activities.

  8. Yap JKY, Pickard BS, Gan SY, Chan EWL
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2021 07;136:106014.
    PMID: 34022435 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106014
    Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease, which accounts for most dementia cases. Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognised for its roles in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis which, in part, links amyloid-beta to neuronal death. Neuroinflammatory signalling can be exhibited by neurons themselves, potentially leading to widespread neuronal cell death, although neuroinflammation is commonly associated with glial cells. The presence of the inflammasomes such as nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors protein 1 in neurons accelerates amyloid-beta -induced neuroinflammation and has been shown to trigger neuronal pyroptosis in murine Alzheimer's disease models. However, the pathways involved in amyloid-beta activation of inflammasomes have yet to be elucidated. In this study, a gene trap mutagenesis approach was utilised to resolve the genes functionally involved in inflammasome signalling within neurons, and the mechanism behind amyloid-beta-induced neuronal death. The results indicate that amyloid-beta significantly accelerated neuroinflammatory cell death in the presence of a primed inflammasome (the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 1). The mutagenesis screen discovered the atypical mitochondrial Ras homolog family member T1 as a significant contributor to amyloid-beta-induced inflammasome -mediated neuronal death. The mutagenesis screen also identified two genes involved in transforming growth factor beta signalling, namely Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 1 and SNW domain containing 1. Additionally, a gene associated with cytoskeletal reorganisation, SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase Activating Protein 3 was found to be neuroprotective. In conclusion, these genes could play important roles in inflammasome signalling in neurons, which makes them promising therapeutic targets for future drug development against neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.
  9. Hashim IF, Ahmad Mokhtar AM
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2021 08;137:106034.
    PMID: 34216756 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106034
    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are associated with deleterious mutations of genes that encode proteins involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganisation. This deficiency affects haematopoietic cells. PID results in the defective function of immune cells, such as impaired chemokine-induced motility, receptor signalling, development and maturation. Some of the genes mutated in PIDs are related to small Ras homologous (Rho) guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), one of the families of the Ras superfamily. Most of these genes act as molecular switches by cycling between active guanosine triphosphate-bound and inactive guanosine diphosphate-bound forms to control multiple cellular functions. They are best studied for their role in promoting cytoskeleton reorganisation, cell adhesion and motility. Currently, only three small Rho GTPases, namely, Rac2, Cdc42 and RhoH, have been identified in PIDs. However, several other Rho small G proteins might also contribute to the deregulation and phenotype observed in PIDs. Their contribution in PIDs may involve their main regulator, Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors such as DOCK2 and DOCK8, wherein mutations may result in the impairment of small Rho GTPase activation. Thus, this review outlines the potential contribution of several small Rho GTPases to the promotion of PIDs.
  10. Veerasamy T, Eugin Simon S, Tan KO
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2021 08;137:106016.
    PMID: 34082133 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106016
    Conventional chemotherapy relies on the cytotoxicity of chemo-drugs to inflict destructive effects on tumor cells. However, as most tumor cells develop resistance to chemo-drugs, small doses of chemo-drugs are unlikely to provide significant clinical benefits in cancer treatment while high doses of chemo-drugs have been shown to impact normal human cells negatively due to the non-specific nature and cytotoxicity associated with chemo-drugs. To overcome this challenge, sensitizations of tumor cells with bioactive molecules that specifically target the pro-survival and pro-apoptosis signaling pathways of the tumor cells are likely to increase the therapeutic impacts and improve the clinical outcomes by reducing the dependency and adverse effects associated with using high doses of chemo-drugs in cancer treatment. This review focuses on emerging strategies to enhance the sensitization of tumor cells toward cancer therapies based on our understanding of tumor cell biology and underlying signaling pathways.
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