Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants.
The gene encoding a cold-adapted, organic solvent stable lipase from a local soil-isolate, mesophilic Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was expressed in a prokaryotic system. A two-step purification of AT2 lipase was achieved using butyl sepharose and DEAE sepharose column chromatography. The final recovery and purification fold were 47.09 % and 3.45, respectively. The molecular mass of the purified lipase was estimated to be 43 kDa. AT2 lipase was found to be optimally active at pH 8 and stable at pH 6-9. Interestingly, this enzyme demonstrated remarkable stability at cold temperature (<30 °C) and exhibited optimal activity at a temperature of 25 °C. A significant enhancement of the lipolytic activity was observed in the presence of Ca(2+), Tween 60 and Tween 80. Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, a well known serine inhibitor did not cause complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity. AT2 lipase exhibited excellent preferences towards long chain triglycerides and natural oils. The lipolytic activity was stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide and diethyl ether, while more than 50 % of its activity was retained in methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, and n-hexane. Taken together, AT2 lipase revealed highly attractive biochemical properties especially because of its stability at low temperature and in organic solvents.
Mutations in human laforin lead to an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder Lafora disease. In N-terminal carbohydrate binding domain of laforin, two mutations W32G and K87A are reported as highly disease causing laforin mutants. Experimental studies reported that mutations are responsible for the abolishment of glycogen binding which is a critical function of laforin. Our current computational study focused on the role of conformational changes in human laforin structure due to existing single mutation W32G and prepared double mutation W32G/K87A related to loss of glycogen binding. We performed 10 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies in the Gromacs package for both mutations and analyzed the trajectories. From the results, the global properties like root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area and hydrogen bonds showed structural changes in atomic level observed in W32G and W32G/K87A laforin mutants. The conformational change induced by mutants influenced the loss of the overall stability of the native laforin. Moreover, the change in overall motion of protein was analyzed by principal component analysis and results showed protein clusters expanded more than native and also change in direction in case of double mutant in conformational space. Overall, our report provides theoretical information on loss of structure-function relationship due to flexible nature of laforin mutants. In conclusion, comparative MD simulation studies support the experimental data on W32G and W32G/K87A related to the lafora disease mechanism on glycogen binding.
Lipases are known for their versatility in addition to their ability to digest fat. They can be used for the formulation of detergents, as food ingredients and as biocatalysts in many industrial processes. Because conventional enzymes are frangible at high temperatures, the replacement of conventional chemical routes with biochemical processes that utilize thermostable lipases is vital in the industrial setting. Recent theoretical studies on enzymes have provided numerous fundamental insights into the structures, folding mechanisms and stabilities of these proteins. The studies corroborate the experimental results and provide additional information regarding the structures that were determined experimentally. In this paper, we review the computational studies that have described how temperature affects the structure and dynamics of thermoenzymes, including the thermoalkalophilic L1 lipase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus. We will also discuss the potential of using pressure for the analysis of the stability of thermoenzymes because high pressure is also important for the processing and preservation of foods.
A new strain of psychrophilic bacteria (designated strain AMS8) from Antarctic soil was screened for extracellular lipolytic activity and further analyzed using molecular approach. Analysis of 16S rDNA showed that strain AMS8 was similar to Pseudomonas sp. A lipase gene named lipAMS8 was successfully isolated from strain AMS8, cloned, sequenced and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis revealed that lipAMS8 consist of 1,431 bp nucleotides that encoded a polypeptide consisting of 476 amino acids. It lacked an N-terminal signal peptide and contained a glycine- and aspartate-rich nonapeptide sequence at the C-terminus, which are known to be the characteristics of repeats-in-toxin bacterial lipases. Furthermore, the substrate binding site of lipAMS8 was identified as S(207), D(255) and H(313), based on homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment. Crude lipase exhibited maximum activity at 20 °C and retained almost 50 % of its activity at 10 °C. The molecular weight of lipAMS8 was estimated to be 50 kDa via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimal expression level was attained using the recombinant plasmid pET32b/BL21(DE3) expressed at 15 °C for 8 h, induced by 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D thiogalactoside (IPTG) at E. coli growth optimal density of 0.5.
The limited sequence similarity of protein sequences with known structures has led to an indispensable need for computational technology to predict their structures. Structural bioinformatics (SB) has become integral in elucidating the sequence-structure-function relationship of a protein. This report focuses on the applications of SB within the context of protein engineering including its limitation and future challenges.
Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the dynamic differences between native Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase and a mutant with 20 % greater thermostability. Atomic root mean square deviation, radius of gyration, and number of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges are examined to determine thermostability factors. The results suggest that, among secondary structure elements, loops have the most impact on the thermal stability of A. niger phytase. In addition, the location rather than the number of hydrogen bonds is found to have an important contribution to thermostability. The results also show that salt bridges may have stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the enzyme and influence its thermostability accordingly.
In this post genomic era, there are a great number of in silico annotated hypothetical genes. However, experimental validation of the functionality of these genes remains tentative. Two of the major challenges faced by researcher are whether these hypothetical genes are protein-coding genes and whether their corresponding predicted translational start codons are correct. In this report, we demonstrate a convenient procedure to validate the presence of a hypothetical gene product of BPSS1356 from Burkholderia pseudomallei as well as its start codon. It was done by integration of a His-Tag coding sequence into C-terminal end of BPSS1356 gene via homologous recombination. We then purified the native protein using affinity chromatography. The genuine start codon of BPSS1356 was then determined by protein N-terminal sequencing.
A mutant of the lipase from Geobacillus sp. strain T1 with a phenylalanine to leucine substitution at position 16 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(De3)pLysS. The crude enzyme was purified by two-step affinity chromatography with a final recovery and specific activity of 47.4 and 6,315.8 U/mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified F16L lipase was approximately 43 kDa by 12% SDS-PAGE analysis. The F16L lipase was demonstrated to be a thermophilic enzyme due its optimum temperature at 70 °C and showed stability over a temperature range of 40-60 °C. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH 7 in phosphate buffer and was relatively stable at an alkaline pH 8-9. Metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), and K(+) enhanced the lipase activity, but Mg(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) inhibited the lipase. All surfactants tested, including Tween 20, 40, 60, 80, Triton X-100, and SDS, significantly inhibited the lipolytic action of the lipase. A high hydrolytic rate was observed on long-chain natural oils and triglycerides, with a notable preference for olive oil (C18:1; natural oil) and triolein (C18:1; triglyceride). The F16L lipase was deduced to be a metalloenzyme because it was strongly inhibited by 5 mM EDTA. Moderate inhibition was observed in the presence of PMSF at a similar concentration, indicating that serine residues are involved in its catalytic action. Further, the activity was not impaired by water-miscible solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone.
Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp.
The details of plant lipid metabolism are relatively well known but the regulation of fatty acid production at the protein level is still not understood. Hence this study explores the importance of phosphorylation as a mechanism to control the activity of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes using low and high oleic acid mesocarps of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis variety of Tenera). Adaptation of neutral loss-triggered tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring to detect the neutral loss of phosphoric acid successfully found several phosphoamino acid-containing peptides. These peptides corresponded to the peptides from acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase as identified by their precursor ion masses. These findings suggest that these enzymes were phosphorylated at 20th week after anthesis. Phosphorylation could have reduce their activities towards the end of fatty acid biosynthesis at ripening stage. Implication of phosphorylation in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis at protein level has never been reported.
Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % D-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (≥90 %) compared to the 0.2 % D-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % D-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is an important economic crop cultivated for its nutritional palm oil. A significant amount of effort has been undertaken to understand oil palm growth and physiology at the molecular level, particularly in genomics and transcriptomics. Recently, proteomics studies have begun to garner interest. However, this effort is impeded by technical challenges. Plant sample preparation for proteomics analysis is plagued with technical challenges due to the presence of polysaccharides, secondary metabolites and other interfering compounds. Although protein extraction methods for plant tissues exist, none work universally on all sample types. Therefore, this study aims to compare and optimize different protein extraction protocols for use with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of young and mature leaves from the oil palm. Four protein extraction methods were evaluated: phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate, trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation, sucrose and trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol. Of these four protocols, the trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol method was found to give the highest resolution and most reproducible gel. The results from this study can be used in sample preparations of oil palm tissue for proteomics work.
This study aimed to express two major drug-metabolizing human hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs), CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, together with NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (OxR) in Escherichia coli and to evaluate their catalytic activities. Full length cDNA clones of both isoforms in which the N-terminus was modified to incorporate bovine CYP17α sequence were inserted into a pCWori(+) vector. The modified CYP cDNAs were subsequently expressed individually, each together with OxR by means of separate, compatible plasmids with different antibiotic selection markers. The expressed proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting and reduced CO difference spectral scanning. Enzyme activities were examined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays with probe substrates dextromethorphan and testosterone for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Results from immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of both CYP proteins in bacterial membranes and reduced CO difference spectra of the cell preparations exhibited the characteristic absorbance peak at 450 nm. Co-expressed OxR also demonstrated an activity level comparable to literature values. Kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max) values determined from the HPLC assays also agreed well with literature values. As a conclusion, the procedures described in this study provide a relatively convenient and reliable means of producing catalytically active CYP isoforms suitable for drug metabolism and interaction studies.
The use of lipase in hydrophilic solvent is usually hampered by inactivation. The solvent stability of a recombinant solvent stable lipase isolated from thermostable Bacillus sp. strain 42 (Lip 42), in DMSO and methanol were studied at different solvent-water compositions. The enzymatic activities were retained in up to 45% v/v solvent compositions. The near-UV CD spectra indicated that tertiary structures were perturbed at 60% v/v and above. Far-UV CD in methanol indicated the secondary structure in Lip 42 was retained throughout all solvent compositions. Fluorescence studies indicated formations of molten globules in solvent compositions of 60% v/v and above. The enzyme was able to retain its secondary structures in the presence of methanol; however, there was a general reduction in beta-sheet and an increase in alpha-helix contents. The H-bonding arrangements triggered in methanol and DMSO, respectively, caused different forms of tertiary structure perturbations on Lip 42, despite both showing partial denaturation with molten globule formations.
Twenty percent of genes that encode for hypothetical proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH78578 were identified, leading to KPN00728 and KPN00729 after bioinformatics analysis. Both open reading frames showed high sequence homology to Succinate dehydrogenase Chain C (SdhC) and D (SdhD) from Escherichia coli. Recently, KPN00729 was assigned as SdhD. KPN00728 thus remains of particular interest as no annotated genes from the complete genome sequence encode for SdhC. We discovered KPN00728 has a missing region with conserved residues important for ubiquinone (UQ) and heme group binding. Structure and function prediction of KPN00728 coupled with secondary structure analysis and transmembrane topology showed KPN00728 adopts SDH-(subunit C)-like structure. To further probe its functionality, UQ was docked on the built model (consisting KPN00728 and KPN00729) and formation of hydrogen bonds between UQ and Ser27, Arg31 (KPN00728) and Tyr84 (KPN00729) further reinforces and supports that KPN00728 is indeed SDH. This is the first report on the structural and function prediction of KPN00728 of K. pneumoniae MGH78578 as SdhC.
This paper describes a refinement in the purification step that facilitated the downstream recovery of high purity BmR1 recombinant protein, which is a protein used as a test reagent in the commercialized rapid tests for detection of lymphac filariasis i.e. Brugia Rapid™ and panLF rapid™. Purification was performed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), followed by ion exchange chromatography (IEX). Results showed that a total of 10.27 mg of BmR1 was obtained when IMAC was performed using 20 mM of imidazole and 5 column volume of wash buffer containing 500 mM of NaCl. Purity of the target protein was enhanced when buffer at pH 5.8 was used during the IEX. Two proteins that recurrently appeared below the BmR1 recombinant protein were identified by mass-spectrometry analysis as the same protein, thus they were probably degradation products of BmR1. These strategies improve purity of the target protein to be used in applications such as production of aptamers and monoclonal antibodies.
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to understand how protein structure, dynamics, and flexibility are affected by adaptation to high temperature for several years. We report here the results of the high temperature MD simulations of Bacillus stearothermophilus L1 (L1 lipase). We found that the N-terminal moiety of the enzyme showed a high flexibility and dynamics during high temperature simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain and the main catalytic domain or core domain of the enzyme. These two domains interact with each other through a Zn(2+)-binding coordination with Asp-61 and Asp-238 from the core domain and His-81 and His-87 from the small domain. Interestingly, the His-81 and His-87 were among the highly fluctuated and mobile residues at high temperatures. The results appear to suggest that tight interactions of Zn(2+)-binding coordination with specified residues became weak at high temperature which suggests the contribution of this region to the thermostability of the enzyme.
Salmonella typhimurium is an important biofilm-forming bacteria. It is known to be resistant to a wide range of antimicrobials. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against S. typhimurium biofilm and investigate whole-cell protein expression by biofilm cells following treatment with DMSO. Antibiofilm activities were assessed using pellicle assay, crystal violet assay, colony-forming unit counting and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix assay whilst differential protein expression was investigated using a combination of one dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Treatment with 32% DMSO inhibited pellicle formation, biofilm viability, biofilm biomass and several important components of EPS matrix. Subtractive protein profiling identified two unique protein bands (25.4 and 51.2 kDa) which were present only in control biofilm and not in 32% DMSO-treated biofilm. In turn, 29 and 46 proteins were successfully identified from the protein bands of 25.4 and 51.2 kDa respectively. Protein interaction network analysis identified several biological pathways to be affected, including glycolysis, PhoP-PhoQ phosphorelay signalling and flagellar biosynthesis. The present study suggests that DMSO may inhibit multiple biological pathways to control biofilm formation.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate, permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.