Aging is attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Occupational exposure is one of the environmental factors with potential genotoxic effects. Researchers try to determine factors involved in genetic damages at hazards exposure that could accelerate aging. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) gene contributes in activation and detoxification of the environmental hazards. This polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility of inter-individuals to DNA damage at the occupational exposure. The current study evaluated the possible influence of this gene polymorphism in aging by genomic damages through the biomarkers alterations of micronuclei (MN), comet tail length and telomere length shortening at the exposure. In this study, buccal cells were collected from the oral cavity of exposed workers and non-exposed controls. The CYP2E1 genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The wild genotype significantly affected MN frequency (p = 0.007) and relative telomere length (p = 0.047) in the older group of workers. It was concluded that the interaction of gene polymorphism and exposure enhances DNA damage and accelerates aging consequently.
Cadmium has been classified as an environmental pollutant and human carcinogen. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulosic network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of pectin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) saline (1 mg/kg) and pectin (50 mg/kg), respectively, two days/weeks over three weeks period. Groups 3-5 were injected i.p. with 1 mg/kg cadmium two days/week while groups 4 and 5 co-administrated i.p. with 25 and 50 mg/kg pectin, respectively, three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present work revealed that cadmium-exposed rats showed decrease in serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and lactate dehydrogenase. Testicular cholesterol, total protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels were also decreased while testicular malondialdehyde level was increased after cadmium injection. On the other hand, serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased after cadmium exposure. Cadmium also induced sperms loss. Co-administration of pectin with cadmium restores all the above parameters and sperms to the normal levels where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histochemical investigations. In conclusion, pectin can counteract the testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium and the effect was dose-dependent.
Caffeic acid (CA) (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acid is the major subgroup of phenolic compounds. Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent addictive psychostimulant. Chronic use and acute METH intoxication can cause substantial medical consequences, including spleen, kidney, liver and heart. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CA to protect against oxidative stress and DNA damage to various organs in METH toxicity. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) while groups 2,3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with METH (10 mg/kg) twice a day over five days period. Where 100 & 200 mg/kg of CA were injected (i.p) into groups 3 and 4, respectively one day before exposure to METH injections. Tissue antioxidants and DNA content were evaluated in different tissues. METH decreased glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels while increased malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and protein carbonyl levels in brain (hypothalamus), liver, and kidney tissues of rats. METH increased hyperdiploidy in these tissues and DNA damage results. Prior treatment of CA to animals exposed to METH restores the above parameters to the normal levels and preserves the DNA content of these tissues. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, METH induced oxidative stress and DNA damage and pretreatment of CA before METH injections prevented tissue oxidative stress and DNA damage in METH-treated animals.
The protective role of Tropaelum majus (T.majus) methyl alcohol extract and vitamin E in the case of toxic effect induced by diethyl maleate was evaluated. Forty-two male albino rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each for 15 days. Group 1: normal control group. Group 2: taken daily oral dose of paraffin oil (0.25ml/100g b.wt rat). Group 3: received daily oral dose of vitamin E (100mg/kg b.wt rat). Group 4: taken daily oral dose of 10% of the LD50 of T.majus methyl alcohol extract. Groups 5–7: injected intra-peritoneally with diethyl maleate (5 μl/100g b.wt rat) but groups 6 and 7 received a daily oral dose of either vitamin E or 10% of the LD50 of T.majus methyl alcohol extract 1h prior to diethyl maleate injection. The present results revealed that diethyl maleate induced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases enzymes activities decreased in serum, but their activities in the hepatic tissue showed an increase. Glutathione and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels showed a decrease, but thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level showed an increase in both serum and liver tissue. Serum and liver proteins decreased in serum and liver tissue. A significant decrease in blood parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, as well as red and white blood cells) and serum glucose occurred. Histopathological results showed that diethyl maleate induced a hoop of edema in the hepatic periportal area; while T.majus methyl alcohol extract or vitamin E prior to diethyl maleate injection shift blood and liver toxicity induced by diethyl maleate towards normal values and preserved hepatic lobular architecture. In conclusion, pre-treatment with either T.majus methyl alcohol extract or vitamin E provide protection against blood and liver toxicity induced by diethyl maleate in rats, these results were confirmed by histological examinations.
Many previous published methods for the quantitative determination of propranolol (PRN) in human plasma have poor recoveries and were not validated according to the FDA guideline. The aim of this study is to develop a simple HPLC method for detecting PRN in human plasma and to validate it so that it can be applied to a clinical study. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a mixture of a mobile phase consisting of 160 ml water, 180 ml methanol, 70 ml acetonitrile, 2.5 ml acetic acid, and 125 microl triethylamine (v/v). The pH of the whole mixture was adjusted to 3.4. A flow rate of 0.5 ml/min was employed throughout with a 15 microl injection volume. Detection was done using a UV detector at 291 nm. The validated method was linear for concentrations ranging from 15-180 ng/ ml with a good separation and specificity for both PRN and its internal standard, oxprenolol (OXP), with excellent recoveries, precision, and accuracies. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 and 10 ng/ml, respectively. The stability studies demonstrated that PRN is stable in the autosampler vials and also up to 3.5 months. To the authors' knowledge, the recovery, that ranged between 97.9-102.7%, is the highest among all previously reported methods that used HPLC with UV detection. The developed and validated method for PRN analysis is excellent and applicable to a clinical study.
This paper describes a new validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of two anti-cancer drugs, Arabinoside-C (Ara-C) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). A simultaneous determination method saves cost and time as both drugs can be injected into a single HPLC system without the need to change or re-equilibrate with a new mobile phase. The objective of the study is to develop a simultaneous determination method of two anti-cancer drugs, Ara-C and DOX. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture (45:55) of acetonitrile:ammonium hydrogen phosphate aqueous solution (0.01 M) at pH 6.2 at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, with UV detection at 252 nm. Separation was achieved on a C-18 column (5 µm: 250 mm × 4.6 mm) maintained at 30°C in a column oven. The method was linear between 325 ng/ml and 10 µg/ml for Ara-C and 625 ng/ml and 20 µg/ml for DOX. The limit of detection (LOD) was 20 ng/ml for Ara-C and 60 ng/ml for DOX. The developed HPLC method achieved good precision and accuracy as well as limit of quantitations. The developed and validated method is suitable to be used for routine analysis of Ara-C and DOX.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent pollutants and chemically a class of structurally similar chemical compounds characterized by the presence of fused aromatic rings. This research was undertaken to find out immunotoxic effects produced by pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene. These chemicals were injected into developing chicks at three dose levels (0.2, 2 and 20 mg per kg) through allantioc route to rule out possible mechanisms involved in immunotoxicity. DNA adduct produced by PAHs in immune organs were analyzed by DNA adduct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and DNA damage was assessed by comet assay. A significant increase in the DNA adduct levels was found in thymus and bursa in 2 mg and 20 mg dose levels of pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene treated groups, whereas those in spleen simulated the value of controls. Comet assay indicated that PAHs especially pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were capable of inducing increased level of comet parameters in thymus at all the dose levels. Bursa of Fabricius and spleen also showed a gradual rise in comet parameters corresponding to all dose levels, but the increase was more marked as in thymus. Thus, it can be concluded that DNA adducts produced by PAHs lead to single-strand breaks and reduced DNA repair, which ultimately begin a carcinogenic process. Hence, this experiment can be considered as a strong evidence of genotoxic potential of PAHs like pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene in developing chicks.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are pollutants which are persistent in nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a ligand-activated cytosolic transcription factor activated by xenobiotics. The objective was to isolate and identify AHR mRNA transcript in immune organs of developing chicks and to interpret the correlation between AHR induction and dose of PAHs. Specific pathogen free embryonated eggs on day nine were inoculated with solutions of pyrene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene dissolved in tricaprylin (vehicle) through the allantoic route at three dose levels: 0.2 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg. A 650 base pair product was observed by RNA extraction and reverse transcription PCR from thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen on 21st day. When AHR concentration was analyzed by ELISA in these organs, pyrene showed maximum potency in inducing AHR in thymus. Fluoranthene made highest concentration of AHR in bursa of Fabricius. None of these chemicals caused an increase in AHR concentration in spleen.
In this work, molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were rendered for the mouse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (code: 4Q9H) and bioflavonoids; amorphigenin, chrysin, epigallocatechin, formononetin and rotenone including a positive control; verapamil to identify protein-ligand interaction features including binding affinities, interaction characteristics, hot-spot amino acid residues and complex stabilities. These flavonoids occupied the same binding site with high binding affinities and shared the same key residues for their binding interactions and the binding region of the flavonoids was revealed that overlapped the ATP binding region with hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions suggesting a competitive inhibition mechanism of the compounds. Root mean square deviations (RMSDs) analysis of MD trajectories of the protein-ligand complexes and NBD2 residues, and ligands pointed out these residues were stable throughout the duration of MD simulations. Thus, the applied preliminary structure-based molecular modeling approach of interactions between NBD2 and flavonoids may be gainful to realize the intimate inhibition mechanism of P-gp at NBD2 level and on the basis of the obtained data, it can be concluded that these bioflavonoids have the potential to cause herb-drug interactions or be used as lead molecules for the inhibition of P-gp (as anti-multidrug resistance agents) via the NBD2 blocking mechanism in future.
The leucine aminopeptidase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-leucine-chloromethylketone (z-L-CMK), was found to be toxic and readily induce cell death in Jurkat T cells. Dose-response studies show that lower concentration of z-L-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentration causes necrosis. In z-L-CMK-induced apoptosis, both the initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3 and -6) were processed to their respective subunits. However, the caspases remained intact in z-L-CMK-induced necrosis. The caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK inhibited z-L-CMK-mediated apoptosis and caspase processing but has no effect on z-L-CMK-induced necrosis in Jurkat T cells. The high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) protein was found to be released into the culture medium by the necrotic cells and not the apoptotic cells. These results indicate that the necrotic cell death mediated by z-L-CMK at high concentrations is via classical necrosis rather than secondary necrosis. We also demonstrated that cell death mediated by z-L-CMK was associated with oxidative stress via the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was blocked by N-acetyl cysteine. Taken together, the results demonstrated that z-L-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. The toxic side effects in Jurkat T cells mediated by z-L-CMK are associated with oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH and accumulation of ROS.
Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer chemotherapy since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 1977. However, TAM therapy is accompanied with hepatotoxicity - a source of worry to clinicians. Oxidative stress and inflammation are the major implicated mechanisms contributing to TAM hepatotoxicity. In this study, we explored whether zinc (Zn) supplementation could prevent TAM-induced hepatotoxicity in female Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to oral pretreatment of Zn (100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) for 14 days against hepatic toxicity induced by single intraperitoneal administration of TAM (50 mg/kg b.w.) on day 13. TAM markedly elevated serum liver enzymes, whereas total protein and albumin considerably reduced. TAM caused prominent depletion of hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Also, TAM significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Further, it raised liver levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β, (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) confirmed by the liver histopathological alterations. The mechanistic inflammatory expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), and expression of caspase-3 protein prominently increased. Zinc supplementation significantly modulated serum liver function markers, antioxidant enzymes, and GSH and MDA levels. Zinc downregulated the expression of cytokines, NO, iNOS, NF-ĸB and caspase-3, and ameliorated histopathological changes. Zinc protects against TAM-induced hepatotoxicity; it may serve as an adjuvant supplement for female patients undergoing TAM chemotherapy.