Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 243 in total

  1. Ruppert N, Mansor A, Sah SA
    Tropical life sciences research, 2017 Jan;28(1):33-44.
    PMID: 28228915 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.3
    Rattans (subfamily Calamoideae) are an important component of the forests of the Old World. However, few studies have been conducted on the distribution of these abundant palms within different habitats, specifically in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was aimed at assessing rattan diversity, abundance and biomass change across two different habitat types, namely, dipterocarp forests and fresh-water swamps within the Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Perak, within two years. All rattan stems within five 100 m × 100 m sized study plots (A-E) of the two habitat types were counted in 2011 and 2013, and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices were calculated. A total of 11 species from 5 genera (161 stems ha(-1)) were sampled. Rattan abundance was higher in all swamp plots; however, rattan diversity (H') was highest in the dipterocarp plot (D: H' (2011)1.79; H' (2013)1.84). Bray-Curtis indices of rattan abundance (highest similarity in swamp: plot BC(2011) 0.484, BC(2013) 0.262) and biomass were highest for study plots with the same vegetation types in both years. For rattan biomass, the most similar plot pairs changed during the years: dipterocarp plots A and D were most similar in 2011 (0.509), and swamp plots B and C were most similar in 2013 (0.282). This study helped contribute information regarding the distribution and dynamics of rattans in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia.
  2. Yusof AM, Mohammad M, Abdullahi MA, Mohamed Z, Zakaria R, Wahab RA
    Tropical life sciences research, 2017 Jan;28(1):23-32.
    PMID: 28228914 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.2
    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014-January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015-April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan's wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy.
  3. Isa HM, Kamal AH, Idris MH, Rosli Z, Ismail J
    Tropical life sciences research, 2017 Jan;28(1):1-21.
    PMID: 28228913 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.1
    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta (Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta (Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced (p>0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm(2)) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm(2)), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm(2)) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak.
  4. Zainal Baharum, Abdah Md Akim, Roslida Abdul Hamid, Taufiq Yap Yun Hin, Rosmin Kasran
    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years;
    an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from
    natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing
    attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are
    related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing
    active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects
    have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review
    provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds
    and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also
    discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the
    processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer
    compound discovery.
  5. Thottathil, Gincy Paily, Jayasekaran, Kandakumar, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
    Agricultural development in the tropics lags behind development in the
    temperate latitudes due to the lack of advanced technology, and various biotic and abiotic
    factors. To cope with the increasing demand for food and other plant-based products,
    improved crop varieties have to be developed. To breed improved varieties, a better
    understanding of crop genetics is necessary. With the advent of next-generation DNA
    sequencing technologies, many important crop genomes have been sequenced. Primary
    importance has been given to food crops, including cereals, tuber crops, vegetables, and
    fruits. The DNA sequence information is extremely valuable for identifying key genes
    controlling important agronomic traits and for identifying genetic variability among the
    cultivars. However, massive DNA re-sequencing and gene expression studies have to be
    performed to substantially improve our understanding of crop genetics. Application of the
    knowledge obtained from the genomes, transcriptomes, expression studies, and
    epigenetic studies would enable the development of improved varieties and may lead to a
    second green revolution. The applications of next generation DNA sequencing
    technologies in crop improvement, its limitations, future prospects, and the features of
    important crop genome projects are reviewed herein.
  6. Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Suhaila Abd. Hamid, Al-Shami, Salman Abdo
    Tropical life sciences research, 2016;27(1):115-133.
    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools
    commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame
    and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical
    Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using
    each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to
    sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm,
    a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low
    species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the
    Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm
    and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net
    was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a
    greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable
    farm and the tea plantation streams (RV
  7. Latiffah Zakaria, Muhamad Izham Muhamad Jamil, Intan Sakinah Mohd Anuar
    Tropical life sciences research, 2016;27(1):153-162.
    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in
    terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal
    endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of
    endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of
    endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially
    sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of
    the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal
    Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were
    species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp.,
    F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included
    Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani,
    Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the
    fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among
    the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild
    banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi.
  8. Mariani Mohd Zain, Zary Shariman Yahaya, Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin Nik Him
    To date, the ivermectin resistance in nematode parasites has been reported
    and many studies are carried out to determine the causes of this problem. A free-living
    Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system for this study to investigate the
    response of C. elegans to ivermectin exposure by using larval development assay. Worms
    were exposed to ivermectin at concentration from 1 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL and dimethyl
    sulphoxide (DMSO) as a control. The developments of the worms were monitored for 24,
    48, 72, and 96 hours until the worms become adults. Results indicated that worms’ growth
    began to be affected by ivermectin at a concentration of 5 ng/mL, while at the
    concentration of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 ng/mL, the growth of worms were inhibited compared to
    control worms. Further study of the protein expression in C. elegans should be done to
    investigate the up-regulated and down-regulated proteins involve in ivermectin resistance.
  9. Norahizah Abd Rahim, Hasnah Md Jais, Hasnuri Mat Hassan
    The association of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and roots undoubtedly
    gives positive advantages to the host plant. However, heavily fertilised soil such as in oil
    palm plantation, inhibit the growth of mycorrhiza. Thus, the aim of this research is to
    distinguish and quantify the availability of AMF population and propagules at different sites
    of an oil palm plantation by Most Probable Number (MPN) assay. In addition, root infection
    method was employed to observe host compatibility through the propagation of AMF using
    two different types of hosts, monocotyledon (Echinochloa cruss-galli) and dicotyledon
    (Vigna radiata). Three different locations at an oil palm plantation were chosen for
    sampling. Each location was represented by a distinctive soil series, and were further
    divided into two sites, that is canopy and midway area. Midway site had a greater
    population of AMF compared to canopy. The result showed that different environments
    affect the availability of AMF in the soil. Higher number of AMF infection observed in
    monocotyledon host suggests that the fibrous root system provide a better association
    with mycorrhiza.
  10. Poobathy, Ranjetta, Rahmad Zakaria, Syed Mohd. Edzham Syed Hamzah, Subramaniam, Sreeramanan
    The terrestrial Ludisia discolor, also referred to as the jewel orchid is prized for
    the quality of its leaves. L. discolor is known as a medicinal herb and is touted for its heatand
    pathogen-resisting qualities. L. discolor is valuable in the production of both flavonoids
    and anthocyanins, antioxidants that are exalted in the health industry. Plant cell cultures
    have emerged as alternative sources of anthocyanin production. Plant protoplast cultures
    are used frequently in transient gene expression studies and in the establishment of callus
    and cell suspension cultures. Benefits of plant protoplast system include similarity to cells
    found in plant tissues, reproduction under controlled conditions, and prevention of masking
    of stress responses to previous handling techniques. A study was conducted to assess the
    amenability of the stem and leaves of L. discolor to protoplast isolation. The stem and leaf
    segments were weighed, sliced into thin layers, immersed in a digestion medium, washed
    and then cultured onto a recovery medium. Results indicated that the production of plant
    protoplasts from L. discolor may be viewed as an alternative in the generation of cell
    cultures and ultimately in the production of anthocyanins from the cell cultures.
  11. Ng, Amelia Phei Fang, Teh, Chiew Peng, Poi, Khoy Yen, Tan, Aileen Shau Hwai, Zulfigar Yasin
    The effects of salinity on the embryonic and larvae stage of Crassostrea iredalei
    were investigated. Fertilised eggs and one day old D-larvae were subjected to salinities
    ranging from 0 to 30 ppt at temperature of 30±2°C. At salinity lower than 10 ppt, 100%
    mortality was observed. For embryo development, the highest survival was observed at
    salinity 25 ppt with 80.9±2.2% survival with no significant difference compared to 15 and
    30 ppt. Shell height and length were both greatest at salinity 30 ppt. Throughout the 11
    days culture, the highest larval survival occurred at salinity 15 ppt with no significant
    difference compared to all other salinities except 10 ppt. Larval shell sizes showed no
    significant differences between salinities, except for 10 ppt. Optimum culture condition for
    larvae growth are salinities ranging from 15 to 30 ppt whereby the larval of this species
    can tolerate wider range of salinity compared to other oyster species and thus, making it a
    competitive species to be cultured.
  12. Azma Hanim Ismail, Anis Amalina Mohd Adnan
    The distribution and abundance of zooplankton species of Harapan and Aman
    Lakes were investigated in relation to physical parameters and chlorophyll-a content. Both
    lakes were characterised by the occurrence of algal bloom problem. The composition of
    zooplankton was collected at monthly intervals from November 2013 to February 2014.
    The total number of taxa in Harapan and Aman Lakes were 23 and 27, respectively.
    Rotifera was the highest abundance group represent 64% of the total species recorded
    followed by Copepoda (29%) and Cladocera (7%). Three dominant zooplankton that been
    recorded in both the lakes are Brachionus forficula, Brachionus nilsoni, and Trichocerca
    sp. High abundance of these species indicates that the lakes are eutrophic water bodies.
    Overall, zooplankton species distribution and abundance in the study sites are influenced
    by various environmental factors such as water transparency and chlorophyll-a content.
  13. Chee, Su Yin, Sim, Yee Kwang
    Land reclamation in Penang began two decades ago and is still rampant with
    large reclamation projects planned to be executed in the near future. The present study
    provides the first information on effects of land reclamation in Penang towards the coastal
    macroinvertebrates. This study assessed the abundance, diversity, and evenness of
    coastal invertebrates assumed to be the foremost affected when land is reclaimed. Three
    kinds of areas were focused on: reclaimed, unclaimed (adjacent to reclaimed), and
    undisturbed. A total of 53 species of macroinvertebrates from 10 classes (Gastropoda,
    Bivalvia, Polychaeta, Malacostraca, Maxillopoda, Echinoidea, Polyplacophora,
    Branchiopoda, Scaphopoda, and Holothuroidea) were sampled. Reclaimed areas were
    moderately rich in species averaging 11 species compared to 7 species in adjacent and
    14 in undisturbed areas. Species richness was the highest in Teluk Aling (an undisturbed
    area) with 22 species, and was the lowest in Gurney Drive (an adjacent area) with 2
    species. The average species diversity and evenness on reclaimed land was the lowest
    with values of 1.9974 and 0.5787, respectively. The diversity was higher by 5.07% in
    adjacent areas and by 22.92% in undisturbed areas compared to reclaimed areas.
    Species evenness was 29.75% higher in unreclaimed areas and 17.87% higher in
    undisturbed areas compared to reclaimed areas. Land reclamation reduces species
    diversity and evenness, and to a lesser extent, species richness.
  14. Chang, Geraldine Olive Ju Lien, Lai, Ven Inn, Tan, Aileen Shau Hwai, Zulfigar Yasin
    A small scale laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of
    salinity ranging from 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 ppt on the filtration rates of juvenile
    oyster Crassostrea iredalei with 25 ppt as the control. Three juvenile oysters (shell weight:
    1.04 ± 0.12 g; shell length: 1.9 ± 0.2 cm; shell height: 1.9 ± 0.1 cm) were used to test the
    filtration rates in each salinity over the course of 8 hours. The hourly filtration rates were
    determined from the exponential decrease in algal (Chaetoceros calcitrans) concentration
    as a function of time. The oyster in 35 ppt salinity produced the highest overall filtration
    rate (FR2) with 134.06 ± 15.66 mL–1 hr–1 oyster–1 and the lowest overall filtration rate (FR2)
    occurred in oyster exposed to 15 ppt and 45 ppt with 31.30 ± 6.90 mL–1 hr–1 oyster–1 and
    32.11 ± 7.68 mL–1 hr–1 oyster–1
    respectively throughout the 8 hours. The result from this
    study can be useful for optimum oyster culturing and the oysters can be employed as a
    natural biofilter in marine polyculture farming.
  15. Nor Aziella Mohd Rosli, Khaironizam Md Zain
    Like many other countries, reservoirs in Malaysia are primarily built for various
    functions such as hydroelectric power generation, drinking water supply, flood mitigation
    and irrigation for agricultural purposes. Artisanal fisheries activities were also performed in
    these reservoirs. The freshwater fish are a requisite source of protein for the rural
    population. Consequently, the fish resources in reservoirs should be carefully maintained
    at sustainable level. Present study elucidates the preliminary assessment on autecological
    studies of beardless barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon as a model of fish biota in Muda
    Reservoir. This research investigates the growth pattern of C. apogon using length-weight
    relationship and their condition factor. A total of 307 specimens were captured using cast
    net for six consecutive months from March 2014 until August 2014. The growth coefficient
    (b) from the length-weight equation (W = aLb
    ) for male and female of C. apogon were
    3.150 and 3.185, respectively, indicating positive allometric growth. The condition factor
    values of male and female of C. apogon were 1.023 ± 0.111 and 1.026 ± 0.100,
    respectively, suggesting that C. apogon is in good condition in Muda Reservoir. The
    paucity of research on the autecological study in the Muda Reservoir contributes to the
    main reason of performing this research. The findings will serve as baseline information of
    this species in Muda Reservoir, as well as for comparative study in the future.
  16. Nur Aqilah Muhamad Darif, Nur Shakila Abdul Samad, Sazlina Salleh, Mahadi Mohammad, Noor Alia Ahmad Nordin, Aysha Mariam Mohamed Javeed, et al.
    Benthic faunal communities are important components in the intertidal zones.
    The diversity and abundance of the benthic communities are subjected to different natural
    and anthropogenic disturbances. The study was conducted as one off sampling on 6th
    November 2013 (1) to investigate the abundance and distribution of soft sediment
    communities in relation to environmental variables and (2) investigate the changes of
    population structure and diversity using spatial scales of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Results
    indicated a total of 110 individuals of macrobenthos consisting of 7 different groups
    (Annelida, Bivalvia, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Nematoda, Nemertea, Polychaeta) and 4
    different groups of meiobenthos (Copepoda, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Polychaeta)
    consisting 920 individuals were recorded. Dissolved oxygen played the most significant
    role in affecting the distribution of soft sediment communities while ammonia
    concentrations only affected marcobenthic organisms. However, sediment grain size did
    not show significant correlation (p>0.05) on soft sediment communities. Hence,
    understanding how different properties of benthos respond to changes in environmental
    variables is crucial in determining how the impacts on the sediment are tolerated by the
    benthic organisms.
  17. Nurul Fazlinda Mohd Fadzil, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah, Mohd Shafiq Zakeyuddin, Zarul Hazrin Hashim, Mohd Syaiful Mohammad, Khalid Puteh
    A study was conducted at five selected rivers around Bukit Merah Reservoir,
    Perak, Malaysia for eight weeks in order to determine the fish diversity and distribution. A
    total of 28 species comprised of 9 families were identified. The study depicted that there
    were significant changes to the fish composition when compared to previous study which
    had captured 36 species due to different areas covered and different types of sampling
    gear used between both studies.
  18. Mahadi Mohammad, Zaharatul Naa'imah Apandi, Hana Abdul Wahab Marican, Kamphol, Nadthikphorn, Nur Ain Amani Abdul Mubin, Sazlina Salleh, et al.
    Coral reefs in the northern region of the Straits of Malacca have a diverse group
    of octocorals growing on its bed. The octocorals identified in this study are from islands
    along the Straits. In this study, 23 specimens were identified, belonging to 4 sub-orders,
    which have been subdivided into 8 families. From these 8 families, 15 different genera
    have been identified. The identification process for this research was conducted based on
    five important keys; the external form and colouration, polyps or colonial and fundamental
    structure of colonies, monomorphic or dimorphic, the arrangement of polyps, and the
    arrangement of sclerites.
  19. Sufian Maryam, Nik Fadzly, Wan Fatma Zuharah
    Tropical life sciences research, 2016;27(11):95-101.
    Paederus fuscipes Curtis is a nocturnal insect. The attractiveness of artificial
    light sources from residential premises eventually causes the risk of severe dermatitis
    effect, once Paederus is in contact with human skin. The objective of this study is to
    investigate whether the light and height factors of residential buildings and its’ association
    to rice cultivation phases are primary reasons for P. fuscipes’s mass dispersal into human
    residential areas. The study site was located in residential premises that were built
    adjacent to rice field areas (≈ 32–60 m and 164 m) north of the rice field located in Teluk
    Air Tawar, mainland of Pulau Pinang. Overall, both light sources and rice cultivation
    phases caused a significant effect for P. fuscipes beetles dispersal flight to invade human
    settlements. More P. fuscipes were captured near the bright light source with the highest
    number of beetles found during harvesting stage. Whereas, significantly higher number of
    P. fuscipes were captured at level 2 and 3 compared to ground and level 1 of the
    apartment building and P. fuscipes was also found significantly affected by the rice
    cultivation phases at different elevation levels. This indicates that bright light sources and
    higher elevation levels are the main factors in attracting P. fuscipes beetles to disperse
    and causes infestations in residential areas. This finding could create awareness among
    the public on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern.
  20. Teh, Chiew Peng, Tan, Aileen Shau Hwai, Vengatesen, Thiyagarajan
    Tropical life sciences research, 2016;27(11):111-116.
    The influence of the cool and warm temperatures on early life development and
    survival of tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei was studied. D-hinged larvae (day 1 larvae)
    were reared to three different temperatures (20°C, 27°C, and 34°C) for nine days. Oyster
    larvae reared in temperature 27°C, acted as control (ambient temperature). The highest
    survival rate occurred when the larvae were reared in 20°C and 27°C. Larvae reared at
    34°C exhibited reduced survival but increase in the growth rate. The growth rate in larvae
    reared in high temperature (34°C) was significantly higher compared to larvae reared in
    20°C and 27°C (p
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