Severe pulmonary involvement in malaria has been frequently reported in cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection but rarely in vivax malaria. We look at a case of a 38-year-old man living in a malaria endemic area who presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by P. vivax. DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that it was not a mixed infection. After specific antimalarial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient was discharged from the hospital. This case illustrates that P. vivax-induced ARDS is not uncommon and should be readily recognized by the treating physicians. A confirmatory test with PCR is required in order to exclude P. falciparum co-infection.
As well as dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever-dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), other atypical manifestations of dengue virus infection have also been reported. The frequency of CNS involvement in dengue remains unknown, although isolated cases with neurological manifestations have been reported in Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Burma, Puerto Rico and India. We present two cases of encephalitis associated with DF and DHF from New Delhi, India.
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among drug addicts in Malaysia is high, especially among intravenous drug users. The present treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction is considered as a failure. The government finally decided to start on Drug Substitution Therapy in early 2005 as an effort to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country.
This study evaluates the safety and results of surgery usingTaraKlamp Circumcision Device during a group circumcision. Atotal of 64 circumcisions of Muslim boys were performed by Medical Assistants supervised by Medical Doctors in a hall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A new type disposable clamp was used, which was removed 4 days after the operation. No major complications occurred and the boys experienced in general mild pain postoperatively. Mostly good cosmetic results were obtained and 90% of the parents would recommend this new clamp to others. Group circumcisions withTaraKlamp Circumcision Device (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) are safe, although proper patient selection and adequate training in using the device are mandatory.
Rapid participatory research and project development is possible within a tightly controlled social context such as a prison. Having gained access, based on trust and mutual respect, external agents may then facilitate significant change. Given adequate support, incarcerated people with HIV/AIDS and limited medical access may be able to develop mutual care, social support and income-generating activities. In the Malaysian context, we estimated in 1998 that up to one-quarter of prisoners with HIV had indicators of significant disease. We estimated that significant indicators remained unrevealed among between one-half and two-thirds of these. Given prevailing conditions, these would probably only be amenable to peer-based care.
An uncommon and late complication of side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy (CDD), the 'sump syndrome', developed in a patient 4 years after surgery. Recurrent right upper abdominal pain, fever with chills and rigors and latterly, mild jaundice made her seek repeated hospital admissions which were treated successfully with antibiotics. During the last admission, ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), computerized scanning (CT) and hepatic iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan using Tc99m confirmed multiple intrahepatic calculi with proximal dilatation, debris in the distal blind segment and delayed excretion through the CDD. At surgery, the choledochoduodenostomy was taken down and a Rouxen-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RHJ) was fashioned after ductal clearance. The closed end of the Roux loop was placed subcutaneously for subsequent percutaneous access for cholangiography and removal of calculi. She is asymptomatic and well 28 months after surgery.
We review our experience with 27 cases of pulmonary and meningeal cryptococcosis at the University Hospital, (Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia) where this is the most common cause of adult meningitis in patients without debilitating illnesses. Of the 27 cases analysed, six presented primarily with pulmonary symptomatology which usually were mainly cough, chest pain and low grade fever. The rest presented with primarily central nervous system (CNS) symptomatology of which headaches and fever were the most consistent symptoms although a third of these patients also had pulmonary lesions noted on chest radiographs. Treatment in all cases was with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine and usually till a total cumulative dose of 1.5 g of amphotericin had been reached (an average of 10 weeks). Primary pulmonary presentations, if symptomatic, were treated as per CNS cryptococcosis due to the high likelihood of CNS dissemination. Incidental pulmonary cryptococcoma found on routine chest radiographs were confirmed by biopsy under ultrasound or fluoroscopy guidance and booked for surgical resection. Death usually occurred early in patients who presented late. Once patients responded to therapy, mortality was usually avoided. The only cause of morbidity in survivors was visual impairment or blindness, and this was attributed mainly to intracranial hypertension with residual deficits determined by the measures taken to lower intracranial pressures. Our experience suggests that: (i) symptomatic patients should have combination therapy with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B till at least a cumulative dose of 1.5 g amphotericin B is reached irrespective of whether they have primary CNS or pulmonary symptomatology; (ii) non-symptomatic pulmonary cryptococcoma could be treated primarily by surgical resection; (iii) visual failure or papilloedema should be treated aggressively; and (iv) prognosis is good with adequate therapy and early presentation.