Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Khan TM, Khan AU, Ali I, Wu DB
    Vaccine, 2016 Mar 8;34(11):1393-8.
    PMID: 26845740 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.01.045
    A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCPs in Northwest General Hospital & Research Centre, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, awareness and attitude of HCPs towards influenza vaccination. A total of N=170 questionnaires were distributed among the staff. There was a 97% response rate to this survey (n=165). The median age of the respondents was 30 years and most of them, 98 (59.0%), were from age group of 24-30 years. The majority of the HCPs that participated in this study were male 106 (64.2%), and by profession, the majority were physicians 77 (46.7%), followed by pharmacists and nurses. A majority 114 (69.1%) believed that it was not compulsory for HCPs to get vaccinated for influenza. Top three identified barriers to vaccination were: not everyone is familiar with the availability of the influenza vaccination at their institution (Relative importance weight factors (RIWF)=0.71), due to needle fear I do not like to get vaccinated (RIWF=0.70) and it is not compulsory for healthcare professionals to get vaccinated for influenza (RIWF=0.64). The logistic regression analysis has revealed association for job experience and profession with the most of the eleven knowledge item. However, when overall sum of eleven items were tested to identify the factors affecting the knowledge score, along with profession (-0.215 [-0.389 to 0.040]; p=0.016) and job experience (0.823 [0.521-1.125]; p<0.001) HCPs age (-0.409 [-0.755 to -0.064]; p=0.020) was found to be another significant factor affecting the total knowledge score of HCPs. Overall, scoring of the correct responses revealed that nurses have better knowledge and understanding about influenza and the influenza vaccination (6.5±0.8, p<0.001*), followed by pharmacists (6.3±1.14) and physicians. In spite of the published guidelines and recommendations, a very low percentage of the healthcare professionals in our hospital were vaccinated against influenza, and the barriers to vaccination were prevalent. Various strategies, including arranging seminars regarding awareness about vaccinations, are required to improve the knowledge and overall outcomes.
  2. Reed Z, Cardosa MJ
    Vaccine, 2016 06 03;34(26):2967-2970.
    PMID: 26973065 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.077
    Although outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in young children have long been recognized worldwide, the occurrence of rare and life-threatening neurological, respiratory, and cardiac complications has propelled this common condition into the spotlight as a major public health problem in the affected countries. Various enteroviruses cause HFMD, but the severe complications have been mostly associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71). Medical treatment is supportive and measures to interrupt transmission have been challenging to implement. Preventive vaccines could have an important clinical impact, especially among children younger than 3 years old who are most susceptible to the neurological complications. Several groups in the highly affected Asia-Pacific region are working towards vaccines against EV71 and some candidates have progressed to late-stage clinical trials with two vaccines recently reported to have been approved by the regulatory authorities in China. This report summarizes current issues and progress in the development of vaccines against EV71.
  3. Broder CC, Weir DL, Reid PA
    Vaccine, 2016 06 24;34(30):3525-34.
    PMID: 27154393 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.075
    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures.
  4. Al-lela OQ, Bahari MB, Al-abbassi MG, Salih MR, Basher AY
    Vaccine, 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3862-6.
    PMID: 22521848 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.014
    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
  5. Lam SK, Burke D, Capeding MR, Chong CK, Coudeville L, Farrar J, et al.
    Vaccine, 2011 Nov 28;29(51):9417-22.
    PMID: 21864627 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.047
    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.
  6. Jauneikaite E, Jefferies JM, Hibberd ML, Clarke SC
    Vaccine, 2012 May 21;30(24):3503-14.
    PMID: 22475858 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.066
    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, up to 13 serotypes are included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). However, the serotype formulation of these vaccines was initially designed to protect children against serotypes most commonly causing invasive disease in North America, and may not reflect the serotype distribution across the world. Data regarding pneumococcal epidemiology from the other parts of the world, in particular South East Asia, has not been reviewed.
    METHODS: This systematic literature review analyses published serotype data regarding S. pneumoniae isolates from South East Asian countries (defined as countries belonging to the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN): Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam up to 3rd of March 2012.
    RESULTS: Analysis of data from six ASEAN countries, from which information on pneumococcal serotypes was available, showed that the most common disease causing serotypes (in rank order) were 19F, 23F, 14, 6B, 1, 19A and 3. Serotype distribution of pneumococcal isolates was similar across the ASEAN region. Serotype level data was more commonly reported for pneumococcal isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease than for those from non-invasive disease. Studies from Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore contributed the largest proportion of pneumococcal isolates, and serotype data, when compared to other ASEAN countries.
    CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates that the majority of IPD causing serotypes in SE Asia are included in currently licensed PCVs. However, PCV's are included in the routine childhood immunisation schedule of only one of the ten countries included in this analysis. Our findings demonstrate the scarcity of information available on serotype prevalence and distribution of pneumococci in SE Asia.
  7. Ismail R, Allaudin ZN, Lila MA
    Vaccine, 2012 Sep 7;30(41):5914-20.
    PMID: 22406276 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.061
    Gene therapy and vaccines are rapidly developing field in which recombinant nucleic acids are introduced in mammalian cells for enhancement, restoration, initiation or silencing biochemical function. Beside simplicity in manipulation and rapid manufacture process, plasmid DNA-based vaccines have inherent features that make them promising vaccine candidates in a variety of diseases. This present review focuses on the safety concern of the genetic elements of plasmid such as propagation and expression units as well as their host genome for the production of recombinant plasmid DNA. The highlighted issues will be beneficial in characterizing and manufacturing plasmid DNA for save clinical use. Manipulation of regulatory units of plasmid will have impact towards addressing the safety concerns raised in human vaccine applications. The gene revolution with plasmid DNA by alteration of their plasmid and production host genetics will be promising for safe delivery and obtaining efficient outcomes.
  8. Zamri HF, Shamsudin MN, Rahim RA, Neela V
    Vaccine, 2012 May 2;30(21):3231-8.
    PMID: 22426330 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.012
    A gene associated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport was cloned from a local clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 strain of the Ogawa serotype by using the Lactococcus lactis nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system. The V. cholerae wzm gene, which codes for an integral membrane transporter protein, was expressed and targeted to the cytoplasmic membrane, and was crudely isolated through simple centrifugation and SDS solubilization. To examine seroreactivity of this construct, rabbits were orally fed with 10(9) cfu/ml of live, recombinant L. lactis carrying the wzm gene, induced with nisin prior to administration. Recombinant plasmids were retrieved from L. lactis cultured directly from stool samples of inoculated rabbits. Reverse-transcriptase PCR of wzm using the retrieved plasmids confirmed transcription of this gene, indicating viability and stability of the recombinants in vivo. The L. lactis-Wzm construct elicited substantial levels of IgG and sIgA, and challenge with virulent V. cholerae O1 evoked severe diarrhoea in the naive, non-immunised control group, but not in those fed with either recombinant or non-recombinant L. lactis. Oral administration with recombinant L. lactis expressing the V. cholerae wzm gene increases both systemic and mucosal immunity, whereas L. lactis itself appears capable of protecting against the diarrhoeal symptoms caused by V. cholerae. Wzm is a conserved membrane protein associated with the LPS endotoxin, and together with the food-grade L. lactis, represent an attractive target for the development of a safer, live anti-infective therapy against V. cholerae.
  9. Yasin RM, Zin NM, Hussin A, Nawi SH, Hanapiah SM, Wahab ZA, et al.
    Vaccine, 2011 Aug 5;29(34):5688-93.
    PMID: 21723357 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.004
    From January 2008 to December 2009, 433 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were examined to determine the serotype distribution and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. About 50% of them were invasive isolates. The strains were isolated from patients of all age groups and 33.55% were isolated from children below 5 years. The majority was isolated from blood (48.53%) and other sterile specimens (6.30%). Community acquired pneumonia (41.70%) is the most common diagnosis followed by sepsis (9.54%). Serotyping was done using Pneumotest Plus-Kit and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test strip. Ten most common serotypes were 19F (15.02%), 6B (10.62%), 19A (6.93%), 14 (6.70%), 1 (5.08%), 6A (5.08%), 23F (4.85%), 18C (3.93%), 3 (2.08%) and 5 (1.85%). Penicillin MIC ranged between ≤ 0.012-4 μg/ml with MIC₉₀ of 1 μg/ml. Penicillin resistant rate is 31.78%. The majority of penicillin less-susceptible strains belonged to serotype 19F followed by 19A and 6B. Based on the serotypes distribution 22 (44.00%), 28 (56.00%) and 39 (78.00%) of the invasive isolates from children ≤ 2 years were belonged to serotypes included in the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13, respectively.
  10. Baxter R, Patriarca PA, Ensor K, Izikson R, Goldenthal KL, Cox MM
    Vaccine, 2011 Mar 9;29(12):2272-8.
    PMID: 21277410 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.039
    Alternative methods for influenza vaccine production are needed to ensure adequate supplies.
  11. Chow SN, Soon R, Park JS, Pancharoen C, Qiao YL, Basu P, et al.
    Vaccine, 2010 May 14;28(22):3809-17.
    PMID: 20347631 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.027
    To determine why HPV vaccination uptake is low in Asia, we surveyed attitudes, knowledge and communication about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination amongst 480 physicians and 1617 randomly selected urban mothers who could afford HPV vaccines in Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. HPV vaccine rejection by mothers was linked with poor knowledge and low perceptions of self-relevance. Physicians' likelihood of raising the subject and/or recommending vaccination was linked to how proactively they advocate preventive health, their attitude to the subject's sensitivity and their knowledge levels. Because most Asian mothers seek doctors' advice and prefer them to take the initiative, physicians should be more proactive in discussing and recommending HPV vaccination.
  12. Lum LC, Borja-Tabora CF, Breiman RF, Vesikari T, Sablan BP, Chay OM, et al.
    Vaccine, 2010 Feb 10;28(6):1566-74.
    PMID: 20003918 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.054
    Children aged 11 to <24 months received 2 intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).
    Matched MeSH terms: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage; Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology*
  13. Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Thimma JS, Hashim OH, Vadivelu J
    Vaccine, 2010 Feb 3;28(5):1318-24.
    PMID: 19944788 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.027
    Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with lung infections. Secretory proteins of B. cepacia are known to be involved in virulence and may mediate important host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, secretory proteins isolated from B. cepacia culture supernatant were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by Western blot analysis to identify the immunogenic proteins. Mice antibodies raised to B. cepacia inactivated whole bacteria, outer membrane protein and culture filtrate antigen detected 74, 104 and 32 immunogenic proteins, respectively. Eighteen of these immunogenic proteins which reacted with all three antibodies were identified and might be potential molecules as a diagnostic marker or a putative candidate vaccine against B. cepacia infections.
  14. Camilloni B, Neri M, Lepri E, Basileo M, Sigismondi N, Puzelli S, et al.
    Vaccine, 2010 Nov 3;28(47):7536-41.
    PMID: 20846530 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.064
    The study evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a trivalent subunit MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), A/Solomon Islands/3/06 (H1N1) and B/Malaysia/2506/04) in preventing serologically diagnosed infections in a group of 67 institutionalized elderly volunteers during 2007/2008 winter, characterized by co-circulation of drifted A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B influenza viruses. Influenza vaccination induced a significant increase in the amounts of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies, both against the vaccine and the epidemic drifted strains. However, vaccination did not prevent the circulation of the new drifted influenza B virus (B/Florida/4/06-like), belonging to the B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage, antigenically and genetically distinct from B/Victoria/2/87-lineage viruses from which the vaccine B strain was derived.
  15. Chai PF, Lee WS
    Vaccine, 2009 Nov 20;27 Suppl 5:F112-5.
    PMID: 19931708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.069
    From August 2006 to July 2007 a prospective study of out-of-pocket costs incurred by care-givers of children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted in a hospital in Malaysia. Data on caretaker out-of-pocket costs were collected from 260 children hospitalized with diarrhoea. A stool sample was collected from 198 of these children of which 46 (23%) were positive for rotavirus by latex agglutination assay. The mean (median; interquartile range) out-of-pocket cost incurred by the care-givers was US$194 (US$169; US$47-738), constituting 26% of average monthly income of the households surveyed. Major components of the cost were hospital expenses (45%) and productivity loss (37%). These findings will allow further assessment of the cost-effectiveness of any future rotavirus immunization program in Malaysia.
  16. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
  17. Wong LP, Sam IC
    Vaccine, 2010 Jun 17;28(28):4499-505.
    PMID: 20451639 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.043
    The study aimed to determine factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2009. Approximately 70% of overall participants indicated willingness to be vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 influenza. Participants who indicated positive intention to vaccinate against 2009 H1N1 influenza were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. A halal (acceptable to Muslims) vaccine was the main factor that determined Malay participants' decision to accept vaccination, whereas safety of the vaccine was the main factor that influenced vaccination decision for Chinese and Indian participants. The study highlights the challenges in promoting the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Ethnic-sensitive efforts are needed to maximize acceptance of H1N1 vaccines in countries with diverse ethnic communities and religious practices.
  18. Lohr V, Genzel Y, Behrendt I, Scharfenberg K, Reichl U
    Vaccine, 2010 Aug 31;28(38):6256-64.
    PMID: 20638458 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.004
    An adherently growing MDCK cell line was adapted in a two-step process in a fully defined medium and in suspension. The resulting MDCK.SUS2 cells were subsequently evaluated for their potential as host cells for influenza vaccine production in two lab-scale bioreactors (wave and stirred-tank). Cell concentrations up to 2.3 x 10(6)cells/mL were obtained after 96 h, which is slightly higher than cell concentrations obtained with adherent MDCK cells cultivated on microcarriers (2g/L). Infections with influenza A/PR/8/34 and B/Malaysia resulted in high virus titers (2.90 and 2.75 log HA units/100 microL, respectively). The monitoring of extracellular metabolites, including amino acids, revealed a change in some of the metabolite consumption or release profiles, which indicates changes in metabolism during the adaptation process. Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process.
  19. Hussain AI, Cordeiro M, Sevilla E, Liu J
    Vaccine, 2010 May 14;28(22):3848-55.
    PMID: 20307595 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.005
    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced influenza viruses. Based on these study results we conclude that the MDCK cell produced and egg produced vaccine strains are highly comparable.
  20. Souza AR, Braga JA, de Paiva TM, Loggetto SR, Azevedo RS, Weckx LY
    Vaccine, 2010 Jan 22;28(4):1117-20.
    PMID: 20116631 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.046
    The immunogenicity and tolerability of virosome and of split influenza vaccines in patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) were evaluated. Ninety SS patients from 8 to 34 years old were randomly assigned to receive either virosome (n=43) or split vaccine (n=47). Two blood samples were collected, one before and one 4-6 weeks after vaccination. Antibodies against viral strains (2006) A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/California (H3N2), B/Malaysia were determined using the hemagglutinin inhibition test. Post-vaccine reactions were recorded over 7 days. Seroconversion rates for H1N1, H3N2 and B were 65.1%, 60.4% and 83.7% for virosome vaccine, and 68.0%, 61.7% and 68.0% for split vaccine. Seroprotection rates for H1N1, H3N2 e B were 100%, 97.6% and 69.7% for virosome, and 97.8%, 97.8% and 76.6% for split vaccine. No severe adverse reactions were recorded. Virosome and split vaccines in patients with sickle cell anemia were equally immunogenic, with high seroconversion and seroprotection rates. Both vaccines were well tolerated.
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