Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

  1. Wu DB, Chaiyakunapruk N, Chong HY, Beutels P
    Vaccine, 2015 Mar 30;33(14):1633-58.
    PMID: 25681663 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.081
    BACKGROUND: Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7) have been used in children for more than a decade. Given the observed increase in disease caused by pneumococcal serotypes not covered by PCV7, an increasing number of countries are switching from 7-valent to 10- and 13-valent PCVs ("PCV10" and "PCV13"). Economic evaluations are important tools to inform decisions and price negotiations to make such a switch.
    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide a critical assessment of economic evaluations involving PCV10 or PCV13, published since 2006.
    METHODS: We searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science (SCI and SSCI) and Pubmed to retrieve, select and review relevant studies, which were archived between 1st January 2006 and 31st January 2014. The review protocol involved standard extraction of assumptions, methods, results and sponsorships from the original studies.
    RESULTS: Sixty-three economic evaluations on PCVs published since January 2006 were identified. About half of these evaluated PCV10 and/or PCV13, the subject of this review. At current prices, both PCV13 and PCV10 were likely judged preferable to PCV7. However, the combined uncertainty related to price differences, burden of disease, vaccine effectiveness, herd and serotype replacement effects determine the preference base for either PCV10 or PCV13. The pivotal assumptions and results of these analyses also depended on which manufacturer sponsored the study.
    CONCLUSION: A more thorough exploration of uncertainty should be made in future analyses on this subject, as we lack understanding to adequately model herd and serotype replacement effects to reliably predict the population impact of PCVs. The introduction of further improved PCVs in an environment of evolving antibiotic resistance and under the continuing influence of previous PCVs implies that the complexity and data requirements for relevant analyses will further increase. Decision makers using these analyses should not just rely on an analysis from a single manufacturer.
    KEYWORDS: Cost-effectiveness; Cost–benefit; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Matched MeSH terms: Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine/economics*
  2. Monath TP, Seligman SJ, Robertson JS, Guy B, Hayes EB, Condit RC, et al.
    Vaccine, 2015 Jan 01;33(1):62-72.
    PMID: 25446819 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.004
    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector vaccines.
  3. Lee SY, Park ME, Kim RH, Ko MK, Lee KN, Kim SM, et al.
    Vaccine, 2015 Jan 29;33(5):664-9.
    PMID: 25528521 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.007
    Of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), type A has the most diverse variations. Genetic variations also occur frequently at VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. The structural proteins of FMDV, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. In this study we analyzed the type A vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find appropriate vaccine strains. The matching rate of ASIA topotype-specific sites (20 amino acids) located on the viral surface, which are mainly VP1 and VP2, was highly related to immunologic reactivity. Among the available vaccines analyzed in this study, we suggest that A Malaysia 97 could be used as a vaccine virus as it has the highest genetic similarity and immunologic aspects to field strains originating in East Asia.
  4. Kim H, Schoofs P, Anderson DA, Tannock GA, Rockman SP
    Vaccine, 2014 May 1;32(21):2474-9.
    PMID: 24631096 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.079
    Gene reassortment has proved useful in improving yields of influenza A antigens of egg-based inactivated vaccines, but similar approaches have been difficult with influenza B antigens. Current regulations for influenza vaccine seed viruses limit the number of egg passages and as a result resultant yields from influenza B vaccine seed viruses are frequently inconsistent. Therefore, reliable approaches to enhance yields of influenza B vaccine seed viruses are required for efficient vaccine manufacture. In the present study three stable cold-adapted (ca) mutants, caF, caM and caB derived from seasonal epidemic strains, B/Florida/4/2006, B/Malaysia/2506/2004 and B/Brisbane/60/2008 were prepared, which produced high hemagglutinin antigen yields and also increased viral yields of reassortants possessing the desired 6:2 gene constellation. The results demonstrate that consistent improvements in yields of influenza B viruses can be obtained by cold adaptation following extended passage. Taken together, the three ca viruses were shown to have potential as donor viruses for the preparation of high-yielding influenza B vaccine viruses by reassortment.
  5. DeBuysscher BL, Scott D, Marzi A, Prescott J, Feldmann H
    Vaccine, 2014 May 07;32(22):2637-44.
    PMID: 24631094 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.087
    BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic pathogen causing severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans, emerged in Malaysia in 1998 with subsequent outbreaks on an almost annual basis since 2001 in parts of the Indian subcontinent. The high case fatality rate, human-to-human transmission, wide-ranging reservoir distribution and lack of licensed intervention options are making NiV a serious regional and potential global public health problem. The objective of this study was to develop a fast-acting, single-dose NiV vaccine that could be implemented in a ring vaccination approach during outbreaks.

    METHODS: In this study we have designed new live-attenuated vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) expressing NiV glycoproteins (G or F) or nucleoprotein (N) and evaluated their protective efficacy in Syrian hamsters, an established NiV animal disease model. We further characterized the humoral immune response to vaccination in hamsters using ELISA and neutralization assays and performed serum transfer studies.

    RESULTS: Vaccination of Syrian hamsters with a single dose of the rVSV vaccine vectors resulted in strong humoral immune responses with neutralizing activities found only in those animals vaccinated with rVSV expressing NiV G or F proteins. Vaccinated animals with neutralizing antibody responses were completely protected from lethal NiV disease, whereas animals vaccinated with rVSV expressing NiV N showed only partial protection. Protection of NiV G or F vaccinated animals was conferred by antibodies, most likely the neutralizing fraction, as demonstrated by serum transfer studies. Protection of N-vaccinated hamsters was not antibody-dependent indicating a role of adaptive cellular responses for protection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rVSV vectors expressing Nipah virus G or F are prime candidates for new 'emergency vaccines' to be utilized for NiV outbreak management.

  6. Richardson A, Morris DE, Clarke SC
    Vaccine, 2014 Jul 16;32(33):4119-23.
    PMID: 24907487 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.062
    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis are leading causes of vaccine-preventable diseases such as meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia. Although there has been much progress in the introduction of vaccines against these pathogens, access to vaccines remains elusive in some countries. This review highlights the current S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis immunization schedules in the 10 countries belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Epidemiologic studies may be useful for informing vaccine policy in these countries, particularly when determining the cost-effectiveness of introducing new vaccines.
  7. Van Kriekinge G, Castellsagué X, Cibula D, Demarteau N
    Vaccine, 2014 Feb 3;32(6):733-9.
    PMID: 24291200 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.11.049
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers potential for primary prevention of HPV-related pre-cancers and cancers as demonstrated in clinical trials. Mathematical models have estimated the potential real-life impact of vaccination on the burden of cervical cancer (CC). However, these are restricted to evaluations in a limited number of countries.
  8. Hss AS, Koh MT, Tan KK, Chan LG, Zhou L, Bouckenooghe A, et al.
    Vaccine, 2013 Dec 2;31(49):5814-21.
    PMID: 24135573 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.013
    Dengue disease is a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region for which there is no licensed vaccine or treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Phase III lots of a candidate vaccine (CYD-TDV) in children in Malaysia.
  9. Zamri HF, Shamsudin MN, Rahim RA, Neela V
    Vaccine, 2012 May 2;30(21):3231-8.
    PMID: 22426330 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.012
    A gene associated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport was cloned from a local clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 strain of the Ogawa serotype by using the Lactococcus lactis nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system. The V. cholerae wzm gene, which codes for an integral membrane transporter protein, was expressed and targeted to the cytoplasmic membrane, and was crudely isolated through simple centrifugation and SDS solubilization. To examine seroreactivity of this construct, rabbits were orally fed with 10(9) cfu/ml of live, recombinant L. lactis carrying the wzm gene, induced with nisin prior to administration. Recombinant plasmids were retrieved from L. lactis cultured directly from stool samples of inoculated rabbits. Reverse-transcriptase PCR of wzm using the retrieved plasmids confirmed transcription of this gene, indicating viability and stability of the recombinants in vivo. The L. lactis-Wzm construct elicited substantial levels of IgG and sIgA, and challenge with virulent V. cholerae O1 evoked severe diarrhoea in the naive, non-immunised control group, but not in those fed with either recombinant or non-recombinant L. lactis. Oral administration with recombinant L. lactis expressing the V. cholerae wzm gene increases both systemic and mucosal immunity, whereas L. lactis itself appears capable of protecting against the diarrhoeal symptoms caused by V. cholerae. Wzm is a conserved membrane protein associated with the LPS endotoxin, and together with the food-grade L. lactis, represent an attractive target for the development of a safer, live anti-infective therapy against V. cholerae.
  10. Jauneikaite E, Jefferies JM, Hibberd ML, Clarke SC
    Vaccine, 2012 May 21;30(24):3503-14.
    PMID: 22475858 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.066
    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, up to 13 serotypes are included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). However, the serotype formulation of these vaccines was initially designed to protect children against serotypes most commonly causing invasive disease in North America, and may not reflect the serotype distribution across the world. Data regarding pneumococcal epidemiology from the other parts of the world, in particular South East Asia, has not been reviewed.
    METHODS: This systematic literature review analyses published serotype data regarding S. pneumoniae isolates from South East Asian countries (defined as countries belonging to the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN): Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam up to 3rd of March 2012.
    RESULTS: Analysis of data from six ASEAN countries, from which information on pneumococcal serotypes was available, showed that the most common disease causing serotypes (in rank order) were 19F, 23F, 14, 6B, 1, 19A and 3. Serotype distribution of pneumococcal isolates was similar across the ASEAN region. Serotype level data was more commonly reported for pneumococcal isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease than for those from non-invasive disease. Studies from Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore contributed the largest proportion of pneumococcal isolates, and serotype data, when compared to other ASEAN countries.
    CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates that the majority of IPD causing serotypes in SE Asia are included in currently licensed PCVs. However, PCV's are included in the routine childhood immunisation schedule of only one of the ten countries included in this analysis. Our findings demonstrate the scarcity of information available on serotype prevalence and distribution of pneumococci in SE Asia.
  11. Al-lela OQ, Bahari MB, Al-abbassi MG, Salih MR, Basher AY
    Vaccine, 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3862-6.
    PMID: 22521848 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.014
    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
  12. Ismail R, Allaudin ZN, Lila MA
    Vaccine, 2012 Sep 7;30(41):5914-20.
    PMID: 22406276 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.061
    Gene therapy and vaccines are rapidly developing field in which recombinant nucleic acids are introduced in mammalian cells for enhancement, restoration, initiation or silencing biochemical function. Beside simplicity in manipulation and rapid manufacture process, plasmid DNA-based vaccines have inherent features that make them promising vaccine candidates in a variety of diseases. This present review focuses on the safety concern of the genetic elements of plasmid such as propagation and expression units as well as their host genome for the production of recombinant plasmid DNA. The highlighted issues will be beneficial in characterizing and manufacturing plasmid DNA for save clinical use. Manipulation of regulatory units of plasmid will have impact towards addressing the safety concerns raised in human vaccine applications. The gene revolution with plasmid DNA by alteration of their plasmid and production host genetics will be promising for safe delivery and obtaining efficient outcomes.
  13. Lam SK, Burke D, Capeding MR, Chong CK, Coudeville L, Farrar J, et al.
    Vaccine, 2011 Nov 28;29(51):9417-22.
    PMID: 21864627 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.047
    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.
  14. Yasin RM, Zin NM, Hussin A, Nawi SH, Hanapiah SM, Wahab ZA, et al.
    Vaccine, 2011 Aug 5;29(34):5688-93.
    PMID: 21723357 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.004
    From January 2008 to December 2009, 433 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were examined to determine the serotype distribution and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. About 50% of them were invasive isolates. The strains were isolated from patients of all age groups and 33.55% were isolated from children below 5 years. The majority was isolated from blood (48.53%) and other sterile specimens (6.30%). Community acquired pneumonia (41.70%) is the most common diagnosis followed by sepsis (9.54%). Serotyping was done using Pneumotest Plus-Kit and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test strip. Ten most common serotypes were 19F (15.02%), 6B (10.62%), 19A (6.93%), 14 (6.70%), 1 (5.08%), 6A (5.08%), 23F (4.85%), 18C (3.93%), 3 (2.08%) and 5 (1.85%). Penicillin MIC ranged between ≤ 0.012-4 μg/ml with MIC₉₀ of 1 μg/ml. Penicillin resistant rate is 31.78%. The majority of penicillin less-susceptible strains belonged to serotype 19F followed by 19A and 6B. Based on the serotypes distribution 22 (44.00%), 28 (56.00%) and 39 (78.00%) of the invasive isolates from children ≤ 2 years were belonged to serotypes included in the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13, respectively.
  15. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
  16. Wong LP, Sam IC
    Vaccine, 2010 Jun 17;28(28):4499-505.
    PMID: 20451639 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.043
    The study aimed to determine factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2009. Approximately 70% of overall participants indicated willingness to be vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 influenza. Participants who indicated positive intention to vaccinate against 2009 H1N1 influenza were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. A halal (acceptable to Muslims) vaccine was the main factor that determined Malay participants' decision to accept vaccination, whereas safety of the vaccine was the main factor that influenced vaccination decision for Chinese and Indian participants. The study highlights the challenges in promoting the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Ethnic-sensitive efforts are needed to maximize acceptance of H1N1 vaccines in countries with diverse ethnic communities and religious practices.
  17. Baxter R, Patriarca PA, Ensor K, Izikson R, Goldenthal KL, Cox MM
    Vaccine, 2011 Mar 9;29(12):2272-8.
    PMID: 21277410 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.039
    Alternative methods for influenza vaccine production are needed to ensure adequate supplies.
  18. Camilloni B, Neri M, Lepri E, Basileo M, Sigismondi N, Puzelli S, et al.
    Vaccine, 2010 Nov 3;28(47):7536-41.
    PMID: 20846530 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.064
    The study evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a trivalent subunit MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2), A/Solomon Islands/3/06 (H1N1) and B/Malaysia/2506/04) in preventing serologically diagnosed infections in a group of 67 institutionalized elderly volunteers during 2007/2008 winter, characterized by co-circulation of drifted A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B influenza viruses. Influenza vaccination induced a significant increase in the amounts of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies, both against the vaccine and the epidemic drifted strains. However, vaccination did not prevent the circulation of the new drifted influenza B virus (B/Florida/4/06-like), belonging to the B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage, antigenically and genetically distinct from B/Victoria/2/87-lineage viruses from which the vaccine B strain was derived.
  19. Lohr V, Genzel Y, Behrendt I, Scharfenberg K, Reichl U
    Vaccine, 2010 Aug 31;28(38):6256-64.
    PMID: 20638458 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.004
    An adherently growing MDCK cell line was adapted in a two-step process in a fully defined medium and in suspension. The resulting MDCK.SUS2 cells were subsequently evaluated for their potential as host cells for influenza vaccine production in two lab-scale bioreactors (wave and stirred-tank). Cell concentrations up to 2.3 x 10(6)cells/mL were obtained after 96 h, which is slightly higher than cell concentrations obtained with adherent MDCK cells cultivated on microcarriers (2g/L). Infections with influenza A/PR/8/34 and B/Malaysia resulted in high virus titers (2.90 and 2.75 log HA units/100 microL, respectively). The monitoring of extracellular metabolites, including amino acids, revealed a change in some of the metabolite consumption or release profiles, which indicates changes in metabolism during the adaptation process. Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process.
  20. Chow SN, Soon R, Park JS, Pancharoen C, Qiao YL, Basu P, et al.
    Vaccine, 2010 May 14;28(22):3809-17.
    PMID: 20347631 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.027
    To determine why HPV vaccination uptake is low in Asia, we surveyed attitudes, knowledge and communication about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination amongst 480 physicians and 1617 randomly selected urban mothers who could afford HPV vaccines in Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. HPV vaccine rejection by mothers was linked with poor knowledge and low perceptions of self-relevance. Physicians' likelihood of raising the subject and/or recommending vaccination was linked to how proactively they advocate preventive health, their attitude to the subject's sensitivity and their knowledge levels. Because most Asian mothers seek doctors' advice and prefer them to take the initiative, physicians should be more proactive in discussing and recommending HPV vaccination.
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