Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Aljunid S, Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Muhammad Nur A, Md Isa Z, Azmi S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:146-155.
    PMID: 29702920 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.008
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

    METHODS: A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group-based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).

    CONCLUSIONS: It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.

    Study site: UKM Medical Centre, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital
    Alor Setar, and Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu
  2. Blebil AQ, S Sulaiman SA, A Hassali M, Dujaili JA, Zin AM
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:19-23.
    PMID: 29702926 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.09.001
    OBJECTIVES: Assessment of nicotine withdrawal symptoms is an essential part of tobacco dependence treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Malay translated version of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS).

    METHODS: The original scale was translated into Malay following the standard guidelines proposed for translation studies. The reliability and validity of the Malay version scale were evaluated on the basis of data collected from 133 participants. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability. To validate the psychometric properties of the scale, factor analysis and construct validity were used. This study was conducted at the Quit Smoking Clinic at Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The translated scale has excellent reliability, with total Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. The test-retest reliability for the scale presented an excellent reliability and stability of the translated scale with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r = 0.876; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the exhaled carbon monoxide level, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total score, and number of cigarettes smoked per day and the MNWS total score (r = 0.72, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively; P < 0.001). A principal-components analysis with orthogonal rotation yielded a unidimensional model that includes all the items of the MNWS.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Malay version of the MNWS is a reliable and valid measure of withdrawal symptoms as well as the smoking urge, and it is applicable to clinical practice and research study.

    Study site: Quit Smoking Clinic at Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.
  3. Mohd-Dom TN, Wan-Puteh SE, Muhd-Nur A, Ayob R, Abdul-Manaf MR, Abdul-Muttalib K, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:117-123.
    PMID: 29702916 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.012
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the national public sector specialist periodontal program in the management of periodontal disease.
    METHODS: This was a multicenter, time motion, prospective, economic evaluation study involving a total of 165 patients with periodontitis recruited from five selected specialist periodontal clinics. Treatment costs were measured in 2012 Malaysian ringgit (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using step-down and activity-based costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done to compare the specialist periodontal program with a hypothetical scenario in which patients attend biannual dental visits only for regular dental check-up and scaling. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as the difference in cost per gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and clinical attachment levels (CALs). One-way scenario-based sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the uncertainty of inputs.
    RESULTS: The average cost for managing patients with periodontitis was MYR 376 per outpatient visit and MYR 2820 per annum. Clinically, a gain of an average of 0.3 mm of CAL was attained at post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). Patients gained an average of 3.8 QALY post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). For cost-effectiveness analysis, the specialist periodontal program was more cost-effective than the hypothesized biannual dental visits, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of MYR 451 and MYR 5713 per additional QALY and millimeter CAL gained, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is very cost-effective for the public sector to provide specialist periodontal treatment for patients with periodontitis according to the World Health Organization criteria and when compared with conventional biannual dental treatment.
  4. Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Jeanpeerapong N, Lee TA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:222-228.
    PMID: 29702931 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.013
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether there are differences in propensity score (PS) and treatment effects estimated using conventional and calendar time-specific PS (CTS-PS) approaches.

    METHODS: A retrospective database analysis at a university-affiliated hospital in Thailand was used. Diabetic patients receiving glucose-lowering medications from July 2008 to June 2011 were included. Patients were categorized into those exposed and not exposed to thiazolidinediones (TZDs). PSs were estimated by using conventional PS and CTS-PS. In the CTS-PS, PS was separately estimated for three specific calendar time periods. Patients were matched 1:1 using caliper matching. The outcomes were cardiovascular and all-cause hospitalizations. The TZD and non-TZD groups were compared with Cox proportional hazard models.

    RESULTS: A total of 2165 patients were included. The average conventional PS was 0.198 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.195-0.202), while the average PS in the CTS-PS approach was 0.212 (0.206-0.218), 0.180 (0.173-0.188), and 0.205 (0.197-0.213) for July 2008 to June 2009, July 2009 to June 2010, and July 2010 to June 2011, respectively. The average difference in PS was 0.012 (P < 0.001), -0.009 (P ≤ 0.002), and 0.000 (P = 0.950) in the three calendar time periods. The adjusted hazard ratios of the conventional PS-matched cohort were 0.97 (95% CI 0.39-2.45) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.78-1.20) for CVD-related and all-cause hospitalizations, while the adjusted hazard ratios of the CTS-PS-matched cohort were 1.11 (95% CI 0.43-2.88) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.91-1.39), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: CTS-PS is different from PS estimated by using the conventional approach. CTS-PS should be considered when a pattern of medication use has changed over the study period.

  5. Taha NA, Ibrahim MI, Rahman AF, Shafie AA, Rahman AH
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2012 May;1(1):82-86.
    PMID: 29702832 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2012.03.006
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the validity and reliability of a disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire-the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4)-in patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A total of 222 outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre completed the SQLS-R4 in either the Malay or the English language. A generic self-report health-related quality-of-life measure-the EuroQoL group EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire-and a measure of symptom severity-the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale-were also administered to assess validity.
    RESULTS: Good internal consistency reliability was found for both the psychosocial and vitality domains (Cronbach's α = 0.95 and 0.85, respectively). Most items were also significantly correlated with their own scale score (rs ranging from 0.29 to 0.74). There was a moderate correlation between the SQLS-R4 "vitality" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "usual activities" domain (rs = 0.44) and a large correlation between the SQLS-R4 "psychosocial" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "anxiety/depression" domain (rs = 0.44-0.57). Most of the symptom dimensions of the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were also moderately correlated with the SQLS-R4 subscale scores.
    CONCLUSIONS: The SQLS-R4 is a valid and reliable health-related quality-of-life instrument for use in minimally ill patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia, but some of the items may be redundant and irrelevant. Validation of SQLS-R4 in different types of patients and various levels of illness severity is required to further verify its application.
    Study site: Psychiatry clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  6. Nasution A, Syed Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):43-47.
    PMID: 29702851 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.02.009
    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related problems and dose adjustment. The control group (n = 80) was based on the historical cohort of patients who received care before the CPE. Measure of clinical outcome applied in this study was number of lives saved/100 patients treated. Cost-effectiveness ratios for CKD stages 4 and 5 patients without CPE and with CPE and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for CKD stages 4 and 5 patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Lives saved (%) in the treatment of CKD without CPE: CKD stage 4, 78.57; CKD stage 5, 57.58. Lives saved (%) in the treatment of CKD with CPE: CKD stage 4, 88.89; CKD stage 5, 65.45. Cost-effectiveness ratios for stage 4 with and without CPEs were Rp3,348,733.27 and Rp3,519,931.009, respectively. Cost-effectiveness ratios for stage 5 with and without CPEs were Rp7,137,874.93 and Rp7,871,822.27, respectively. ICERs were Rp2,045,341.22 for CKD stage 4 and Rp1,767,585.60 for CKD stage 5.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CKD stages 4 and 5 with CPE was more effective and cost-effective compared with treatment of CKD stages 4 and 5 without CPE. The ICERs indicated that extra costs were required to increase life saved in both stages.

  7. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Mohamad Yahaya AH
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):107-117.
    PMID: 29702838 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.02.005
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among nonprescription medicine customers in Malaysia and the factors that affect it.

    METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among pharmacy customers in 59 randomly selected community pharmacies in Malaysia. The self-administered questionnaire included the EuroQoL five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire, the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), nonprescription medicines purchase, and demographic questions. Data were analyzed by using the multivariate analysis of variance and multiple logistic regressions.

    RESULTS: A total of 2729 customers enrolled in this study, with a mean EQ-5D questionnaire score of 0.92±0.15 and a mean EQ-VAS score of 69.92±24.80. Compared with the Malaysian adult population, nonprescription medicine customers have a lower mean EQ-5D questionnaire score (t =-4.49, P<0.01) and EQ-VAS score (t =-25.87, P<0.01). We found that pain/discomfort (25.6%) and anxiety/depression (13.7%) were the major HRQOL problems. Locality, age, ethnicity, household income per month, type of occupation, and type of nonprescription medicine purchased were associated with health status of nonprescription medicine customers (F22,5286 = 2.555; Wilks' lambda = 0.979; P< 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: The HRQOL of nonprescription medicine customers is lower than that of the general Malaysian population. Lower health status was independently associated with older age, living in rural areas, having low income and education level, and purchasing blood and blood-forming medicines from community pharmacy.

  8. Lee KKC, Chia Wu DB, Topachevskyi O, Delgleize E, DeAntonio R
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):64-74.
    PMID: 29702855 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.01.012
    BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal universal vaccination in Hong Kong was introduced in 2009.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the health and economic impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) compared with the current 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) recommended for Hong Kong in 2011, providing new elements to be considered by public health authorities in the future decision-making process for pneumococcal vaccines in this country.

    METHODS: An analytical model was used to estimate the annual economic and health outcomes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), community-acquired pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM), including nontypeable H. influenzae-related AOM, for a birth cohort in Hong Kong from the payer perspective with a 10-year horizon. Clinical impact including morbidity-mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental costs, and cost-effectiveness comparing PCV-10 and PCV-13 were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses by using alternate scenarios were performed.

    RESULTS: Model projections indicate that PCV-13 and PCV-10 have approximately equivalent impact on the prevention of deaths caused by IPD and pneumonia. PCV-13 is projected to prevent 6 additional cases of IPD, whereas PCV-10 is projected to prevent 13,229 additional AOM cases and 101 additional QALYs. For the base case, PCV-10 vaccination is estimated to save 44.6 million Hong Kong dollars (34.1 million Hong Kong dollars discounted). Sensitivity analysis indicated that PCV-10 would generate more QALYs and save costs as compared with PCV-13.

    CONCLUSIONS: Universal infant vaccination with new available pneumococcal vaccines is expected to generate a significant additional impact on reducing the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Hong Kong. PCV-10 vaccination would be potentially a cost-saving strategy compared with PCV-13 vaccination, generating better cost offsets and higher QALY gains.

  9. Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Md Isa Z, Ghazi HF, Aljunid S
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 09 13;2(2):259-263.
    PMID: 29702874 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.07.003
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the clinical burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in selected developing countries.

    METHODS: This is an extensive literature review of published articles on IPD in selected developing countries from East Asia, South Asia, Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. We reviewed all the articles retrieved from the knowledge bases that were published between the years 2000 and 2010.

    RESULTS: After applying the inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria, the comprehensive review of the literature yielded 10 articles with data for pneumococcal meningitis, septicemia/bacteremia, and pneumonia. These selected articles were from 10 developing countries from five different regions. Out of the 10 selected articles, 8 have a detailed discussion on IPD, one of them has s detailed discussion on bacteremia and meningitis, and another one has discussed pneumococcal bacteremia. Out of these 10 articles, only 5 articles discussed the case-fatality ratio (CFR). In our article review, the incidence of IPD ranged from less than 5/100,000 to 416/100,000 population and the CFR ranged from 12.2% to 80% in the developing countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated that the clinical burden of IPD was high in the developing countries. The incidence of IPD and CFR varies from region to region and from country to country. The IPD burden was highest in sub-Saharan African countries followed by South Asian countries. The CFR was low in high-income countries than in low-income countries.

  10. Tan CS, Hassali MA, Neoh CF, Saleem F, Horne R
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 May;15:161-168.
    PMID: 29730249 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.12.010
    BACKGROUND: Low rate of adherence was found strongly associated with patients' beliefs across the studies about chronic diseases with hypertension. A crucial move is needed to bridge the gap between appropriate assessment tools and local hypertensive patients' medication adherence.

    OBJECTIVE: To produce a translated version in Malay language of Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) that was "conceptually equivalent" to the original English version for use in local clinical practice and research.

    METHODS: The forward translation process was conducted by two independent professional translators and back translation was done by two other independent translators. A reliability analysis was conducted on 238 conveniently selected hypertensive patients. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability for the randomly selected 40 patients in a period of 2 weeks. Discriminant validity was tested through Necessity-Concerns differential, BMQ subscales, and other parameters.

    RESULTS: The overall Cronbach alpha for the internal consistency was good (0.860). The subscales of the BMQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency, with Cronbach alpha value of 0.759 for Specific-Necessity, 0.762 for Specific Concern, 0.624 for General-Overuse, and 0.756 for General-Harm. The ICC was excellent (0.922). Discriminant validity revealed that BMQ Specific-Necessity score was significantly inversely correlated with the systolic blood pressure level. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels (P = 0.038; P = 0.05) were reported to be significantly correlated with the Necessity-Concerns differential, with Necessity score equal or exceeding Concerns score.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Malay-translated version of BMQ is a reliable and valid tool to assess patient belief about medication, especially medication adherence among the hypertensive patients in Malaysia.
  11. Azmi S, Goh A, Fong A, Anchah L
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2015 May;6:80-83.
    PMID: 29698198 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.03.015
    OBJECTIVES: This study's objectives were to estimate the quality of life (QOL) of Malaysian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during admission and at 12 months, to explore the factors associated with the QOL, and to compare utility scores derived from tariffs from local and foreign populations.

    METHODS: Data collected from patients with ACS between 2008 and 2009 for a study on cardiac rehabilitation at the Sarawak General Hospital were used for this study. QOL data were obtained using a validated version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire at baseline and at 12 months. Health utility scores were calculated using visual analogue scale scores and utility tariffs from Malaysia and the United Kingdom.

    RESULTS: Data from 104 subjects from the earlier study was used. The mean age was 56.1 years, with 88.5% being men. The mean hospitalization duration was 6.3 days. The mean utility score was 0.75 at baseline and 0.82 at 12 months. There was a statistically significant improvement in utility from baseline to 12 months based on the Malaysian tariff (P = 0.014) but not with the UK tariff (P = 0.086). The QOL of patients was associated with sex and diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that there was a significant improvement in the QOL from baseline to 12 months. Only sex and diagnosis affected the QOL score at baseline because of limited variables available for testing. It also reconfirms the importance of applying the appropriate, country-specific utility tariffs in QOL studies. Despite limitations, the study is useful toward describing QOL among a group of Malaysian patients with ACS.

  12. Abdulelah J, Sulaiman SAS, Hassali MA, Blebil AQ, Awaisu A, Bredle JM
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2015 May;6:53-59.
    PMID: 29698193 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.03.006
    BACKGROUND: Various generic instruments exist to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with tuberculosis (TB), but a psychometrically sound disease-specific instrument is lacking.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a multidimensional TB-specific HRQOL instrument relevant to the value of patients with pulmonary TB in Iraq with an eye toward cross-cultural application.

    METHODS: The core general HRQOL questionnaire is composed of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General items. A modular approach was followed for the development of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Tuberculosis (FACIT-TB) questionnaire in which a set of items assessing quality-of-life (QOL) issues not sufficiently covered by the core Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General items, but considered to be relevant to the target population, was added. Moreover, principal-component analysis was used to determine the new subscale structure of the questionnaire.

    RESULTS: In addition to the 27 items of the core questionnaire, a set of 20 items referring to disease symptoms related to the site of infection, adverse effects, and additional QOL dimensions such as fatigue, social stigma, and economic burden of the illness was included. Factor analysis demonstrated that the FACIT-TB construct comprised five domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rigorous method was applied in the development of the FACIT-TB measure to fully understand the impact of TB on patients' QOL. The instrument is psychometrically sound and portrays multiple important dimensions of HRQOL. FACIT-TB is relatively brief, is easy to administer and score, and is appropriate for use in clinical trials and practice.
  13. Wang Y, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Lin HC, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2016 May;9:72-77.
    PMID: 27881264 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.11.004
    OBJECTIVES: Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases is a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of disease in adults with respiratory diseases across six countries. The aim of this study was to describe health care resource use (HCRU), work impairment, cost burden, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with respiratory disease in the Asia-Pacific.

    METHODS: Consecutive participants aged 18 years or older with a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity and activity impairment, and HRQOL. Locally sourced unit costs for each country were used in the calculation of total costs.

    RESULTS: The study enrolled 5250 patients. Overall, the mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US $4191 (SGD 8489) per patient. For patients who reported impairment at work, the mean annual cost was US $7315 (SGD 10,244), with productivity loss being the highest cost component for all four diseases (US $6310 [SGD 9100]). On average, patients were impaired for one-third of their time at work and 5% of their work time missed because of respiratory disease, which resulted in a 36% reduction in productivity. Patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had the greatest impact on HRQOL.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the Asia-Pacific, respiratory diseases have a significant impact on HCRU and associated costs, along with work productivity. Timely and effective management of these diseases has the potential to reduce disease burden and health care costs and improve work productivity and HRQOL.

  14. Dilokthornsakul P, Lee TA, Dhippayom T, Jeanpeerapong N, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2016 May;9:105-111.
    PMID: 27881251 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2016.03.001
    BACKGROUND: To compare health care utilization and cost by asthma severity and type of health insurance in Thailand.

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using an electronic database was conducted in patients with asthma. Patients who were diagnosed with asthma from 2009 to 2011, had at least two subsequent health care encounters for asthma during the first six months after the first asthma diagnosis, and had at least 90 days of follow-up were included. The primary outcome was direct health care costs of inpatient and outpatient care. We compared outcomes between groups on the basis of a proxy of severity (mild/moderate severe asthma vs. high severe asthma) and type of health insurance using a multivariable generalized linear model. Covariates such as Patients' demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and concurrent medications were included in the model.

    RESULTS: Among 1982 patients included, the average age was 40.3 ± 24.0 years, with 60.7% being males. A total of 1936 patients had mild/moderate severe asthma, whereas 46 patients had high severe asthma. There were 1293 patients under the Universal Coverage Scheme, 264 patients under Social Security Insurance, and 626 patients under the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS). The average annual cost per patient was $598 ± $871. In adjusted analyses, the health care cost of patients with high severe asthma was $71 higher than that of patients with mild/moderate severe asthma (95% confidence interval $-131 to $274). The cost of patients under the CSMBS was $110 (95% confidence interval $29-$191) higher than that of patients under Universal Coverage Scheme.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health care costs of patients with asthma were substantial and were higher in patients with high severe asthma and patients under the CSMBS.
  15. Dilokthornsakul P, McQueen RB, Chaiyakunapruk N, Spackman E, Watanabe JH, Campbell JD
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2016 May;9:99-104.
    PMID: 27881269 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.12.003
    Health technology assessment is a form of health policy research that provides policymakers with information relevant to decisions about policy alternatives. Findings from cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are one of the important aspects of health technology assessment. Nevertheless, the more advanced method of value of information (VOI), which is recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and Society for Medical Decision Making Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force, has rarely been applied in CEA studies in Asia. The lack of VOI in Asian CEA studies may be due to limited understanding of VOI methods and what VOI can and cannot help policy decision makers accomplish. This concept article offers audiences a practical primer in understanding the calculation, presentation, and policy implications of VOI. In addition, it provides a rapid survey of health technology assessment guidelines and literature related to VOI in Asia and discusses the future directions of VOI use in Asia and its potential barriers. This article will enable health economists, outcomes researchers, and policymakers in Asia to better understand the importance of VOI analysis and its implications, leading to the appropriate use of VOI in Asia.
  16. Bavanandan S, Ahmad G, Teo AH, Chen L, Liu FX
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2016 May;9:8-14.
    PMID: 27881266 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.06.003
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-year health care budget impact of variable distribution of adult patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) on government funding in Malaysia.

    METHODS: An Excel-based budget impact model was constructed to assess dialysis-associated costs when changing dialysis modalities between PD and ICHD. The model incorporates the current modality distribution and accounts for Malaysian government dialysis payments and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent costs. Epidemiological data including dialysis prevalence, incidence, mortality, and transplant rates from the Malaysian renal registry reports were used to estimate the dialysis patient population for the next 5 years. The baseline scenario assumed a stable distribution of PD (8%) and ICHD (92%) over 5 years. Alternative scenarios included the prevalence of PD increasing by 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% or decreasing 1% yearly over 5 years. All four scenarios were accompanied with commensurate changes in ICHD.

    RESULTS: Under the current best available cost information, an increase in the prevalent PD population from 8% in 2014 to 18%, 28%, or 38% in 2018 is predicted to result in 5-year cumulative savings of Ringgit Malaysia (RM) 7.98 million, RM15.96 million, and RM23.93 million, respectively, for the Malaysian government. If the prevalent PD population were to decrease from 8% in 2014 to 4.0% by 2018, the total expenditure for dialysis treatments would increase by RM3.19 million over the next 5 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Under the current cost information associated with PD and HD paid by the Malaysian government, increasing the proportion of patients on PD could potentially reduce dialysis-associated costs in Malaysia.

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