Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

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  1. Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK
    Vet World, 2016 Mar;9(3):231-4.
    PMID: 27057104 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.231-234
    This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp.
  2. Konto M, Fufa GI, Zakaria A, Tukur SM, Watanabe M, Ola-Fadunsin SD, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Oct;8(10):1167-71.
    PMID: 27047012 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1167-1171
    The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages.
  3. Mahmood ZK, Jesse FF, Saharee AA, Jasni S, Yusoff R, Wahid H
    Vet World, 2015 Sep;8(9):1105-17.
    PMID: 27047206 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1105-1117
    There is very little information regarding blood changes during the challenge of phospholipase D (PLD) in goats. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study the changes in blood after the challenge with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its exotoxin, PLD to fill in the gap of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) research.
  4. Afzali SF, Mohd Daud HH, Sharifpour I, Afsharnasab M, Shankar S
    Vet World, 2015 Sep;8(9):1038-44.
    PMID: 27047195 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1038-1044
    Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups.
  5. Latif NA, Abdullah FF, Othman AM, Rina A, Chung EL, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jul;8(7):924-7.
    PMID: 27047177 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.924-927
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis that affects sheep and goats. This study was designed to determine the presence of the causative organism in the female reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes in non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in the chronic form.
  6. Bloh AH, Usup G, Ahmad A
    Vet World, 2016 Feb;9(2):142-6.
    PMID: 27051199 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.142-146
    AIM: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree.

    RESULTS: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity).

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  7. Abdullahi UF, Igwenagu E, Mu'azu A, Aliyu S, Umar MI
    Vet World, 2016 Jan;9(1):12-8.
    PMID: 27051178 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.12-18
    Biofilm has a tremendous impact in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, leading to a serious economic loss. Over the years, little attention has been given to biofilm in animals with most of the research geared toward human biofilm diseases. The greatest challenge posed by biofilm is in its incredible ability to resist most of the currently existing antibiotics. This mystery can best be demystified through understanding the mechanism of the quorum sensing which regulate the pathophysiology of biofilm. Ability of biofilm formation in a variety of inanimate surfaces such as animal food contact surfaces is responsible for a host of biofilm diseases affecting animals and humans. In this review, we highlighted some of the challenges of biofilm in livestock and food industries. Also highlighted are; mechanisms of biofilm development, best diagnostic approach and possible novel therapeutic measures needed to combat the menace of biofilm in veterinary medicine.
  8. Chung EL, Abdullah FF, Adamu L, Marza AD, Ibrahim HH, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jun;8(6):783-92.
    PMID: 27065648 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.783-792
    Pasteurella multocida a Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. Hemorrhagic septicemia is a disease caused by P. multocida serotype B:2 and E:2. The organism causes acute, a highly fatal septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, post mortem and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida Type B:2 infections initiated through the oral and subcutaneous routes.
  9. Htoo NN, Khaing AT, Abba Y, Htin NN, Abdullah JF, Kyaw T, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jun;8(6):718-22.
    PMID: 27065636 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.718-722
    This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids.
  10. Nasai NB, Abba Y, Abdullah FF, Marimuthu M, Tijjani A, Sadiq MA, et al.
    Vet World, 2016 Apr;9(4):417-20.
    PMID: 27182139 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.417-420
    Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep.
  11. Assi MA, Hezmee MN, Haron AW, Sabri MY, Rajion MA
    Vet World, 2016 Jun;9(6):660-71.
    PMID: 27397992 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.660-671
    Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning "the liquid silver") and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.
  12. Putra TA, Hezmee MN, Farhana NB, Hassim HA, Intan-Shameha AR, Lokman IH, et al.
    Vet World, 2016 Sep;9(9):955-959.
    PMID: 27733795
    The One Health (OH) approach, which seeks to bring together human and animal health, is particularly suited to the effective management of zoonotic diseases across both sectors. To overcome professional silos, OH needs to be taught at the undergraduate level. Here, we describe a problem-based learning activity using the OH approach that was conducted outdoors for 3(rd)-year veterinary students in Malaysia.
  13. Nidaullah H, Abirami N, Shamila-Syuhada AK, Chuah LO, Nurul H, Tan TP, et al.
    Vet World, 2017 Mar;10(3):286-292.
    PMID: 28435190 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.286-292
    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars.

    CONCLUSION: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination sites during slaughter and processing of poultry.

  14. Tahir D, Shariff M, Syukri F, Yusoff FM
    Vet World, 2018 Mar;11(3):327-331.
    PMID: 29657425 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.327-331
    Background and Aim: Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is a premium marine food fish with high demand in Asia. In fish, stress due to environmental changes such as fluctuations in the salinity can result in increased cortisol level. Stress in fish increases susceptibility to diseases ultimately resulting in death. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the salinity tolerance of E. fuscoguttatus and their survival in lower salinities.

    Materials and Methods: In this study, grouper juveniles (92.43±standard error of the mean 0.51 mm) maintained in 31 ppt seawater were transferred into five tanks with seawater diluted to 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 ppt. The salinity of the control group was not changed and was maintained at 31 ppt. Serum cortisol was measured using ELISA at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the fish were transferred to the different concentrations of salinity.

    Results: The survival percentage was recorded for 14 days following the transfer and the results revealed that serum cortisol of fish in a high change in salinity (15, 10, and 5 ppt) was significantly higher than the control group immediately after exposure. At the high salinity change, the cortisol levels gradually decrease at 30 min and 60 min, until no difference in cortisol concentration was observed at 120 min. No mortality was observed in fish exposed to low salinity change (25 and 20 ppt) while in higher salinity change (5 ppt), the survival percentage was 50%.

    Conclusion: The study revealed that the serum cortisol concentration was high initially and continues to decrease to resting cortisol level at 120 min indicating that cortisol hormone is released following acute stress as a primary response in grouper juveniles.

  15. Jesse FFA, Bitrus AA, Abba Y, Raju VN, Hambali IU, Peter ID, et al.
    Vet World, 2018 Feb;11(2):172-176.
    PMID: 29657399 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.172-176
    Background and Aim: Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease.

    Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random. Blood serum was harvested and used for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect antibodies against CAE virus.

    Results: The result obtained showed that 8/91 (8.8%) of the goats were seropositive for CAEV. In addition, biosecurity management, source of origin and sex of the animal were observed to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of CAE in goats.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study affirmed that the seroprevalence of CAEV infection among goat population in small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia, is low. However, there is need to institute strict control measures such as testing and culling positive animals or separation of infected animals from those that tested negative to the disease for effective eradication of the disease.

  16. Tarig AA, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Yimer N, Goh YM, Baiee FH, et al.
    Vet World, 2017 Jun;10(6):672-678.
    PMID: 28717321 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.672-678
    AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) in Tris-based extender on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen quality parameters.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%). A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+). The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain), membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test.

    RESULTS: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05) improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+) in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.

  17. Odhah MN, Abdullah FFJ, Haron AW, Lila MAM, Zamri-Saad M, Khuder Z, et al.
    Vet World, 2017 Jun;10(6):655-661.
    PMID: 28717318 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.655-661
    AIM: This study was conducted to analyze the changes in blood profile of goats inoculated with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its immunogen mycolic acid (MA) extract.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 clinically healthy crossbred Boer female goats were divided into three groups; A, B and C (4 goats each per group). Group A was inoculated with 2 ml sterile phosphate buffered saline via intradermal route as the negative control group whilst Group B was inoculated with 2 ml of MA extract (1 g/ml) intradermally and Group C was then inoculated with 2 ml (1×10(9)) colony forming unit of active C. pseudotuberculosis intradermally. Blood sample was collected aseptically from the jugular vein periodically for complete blood count (CBC) analysis throughout the experimental period (3 months).

    RESULT: A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in red blood cells, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular Hb concentration in Groups B and C as compared to the control while WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte and basophil showed a significant increase (p<0.05) as compared to the control.

    CONCLUSION: The inoculation of C. pseudotuberculosis and MA resulted in a significant change in the CBC, thereby, indicating that MA has a role in caseous lymphadenitis pathogenesis.

  18. Ghani AAA, Shahudin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Zuki AB, Wahid H, Kasim A, et al.
    Vet World, 2017 Jun;10(6):630-635.
    PMID: 28717314 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.630-635
    AIM: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW) of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG) was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group.

    RESULTS: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg) compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg). The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15) of the group had BCS ≥3 (1-5 scoring scale) and only 66.67% (10 out of 15) of the control group had BCS ≥3.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, it was concluded that implementation of proper feeding program as shown in treatment group give promising result to improve the growth performance of replacement breeder goats which can be adopted by the farmers to improve farm productivity.

  19. Salah N, Yimer N
    Vet World, 2017 Jun;10(6):605-609.
    PMID: 28717310 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.605-609
    BACKGROUND: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception.

    AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds) from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis.

    RESULTS: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53) and 9.4% (5/53) of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, ≥8%) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

  20. Mazlan LF, Bachek NF, Mahamud SNA, Idris LH, Wei TS, Omar AR, et al.
    Vet World, 2017 May;10(5):542-548.
    PMID: 28620260 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.542-548
    AIM: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group). The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1× phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay.

    RESULTS: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, Japanese quails are susceptible to genotype VII NDV based on parameters assessed.

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