MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree.
RESULTS: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity).
CONCLUSION: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was divided into short-term treatment (45 days) and long-term treatment (90 days), with each group divided into nine sub-groups consisting of six animals each. Sub-groups 1 and 2 served as normal, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) controls, respectively. Sub-groups 3-9 received sodium arsenite in drinking water (50 mg/L). In addition, sub-group 4 received NAC (210 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily, sub-groups 5-7 received aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens (350 mg/kg b.wt, 530 mg/kg b.wt, and 700 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily and sub-groups 8 and 9 received a combination of NAC and aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens (350 mg/kg b.wt and 530 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily. Following the treatment, the blood was drawn retro-orbitally to assess the liver (serum alanine transaminase [ALT], serum aspartate transaminase, and serum alkaline phosphatase) and kidney (serum urea and serum creatinine) functions. Learning and memory were assessed by passive avoidance test. Animals were sacrificed by an overdose of ketamine, and their Nissl stained hippocampal sections were analyzed for alterations in neural cell numbers in CA1 and CA3 regions.
Results: In the short-term treatment, groups administered with M. pruriens 530 mg/kg b.wt alone and combination of NAC + M. pruriens 350 mg/kg b.wt exhibited a significant improvement in memory retention, less severe neurodegeneration, and decrease in serum ALT levels. In long-term treatment, groups administered with M. pruriens 700 mg/kg b.wt alone and combination of NAC+M. pruriens 350 mg/kg b.wt, respectively, showed better memory retention, decreased neural deficits, and reduced levels of kidney and liver enzymes.
Conclusion: The seed extract of M. pruriens showed significant enhancement in memory and learning. The number of surviving neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions also increased on treatment with M. pruriens. Serum ALT, serum urea, and serum creatinine levels showed significant improvement on long-term treatment with M. pruriens.
Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from four recreational beaches in Malaysia (Port Klang; Bachok; Port Dickson; and Mersing). Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar and chromogenic Vibrio agar were used for isolation and identification. Colonies with yellow color on TCBS and green color on chromogenic vibrio (CV) agar were considered to be V. parahaemolyticus and they were subjected to biochemical tests. All V. parahaemolyticus isolates were further subjected to identification using seven specific gene markers.
Results: Seventy-three Vibrio isolates were recovered. Only one gene thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) from seawater isolates of Vibrio has high virulence gene percentage (95.23%). Two genes alkaline serine protease (asp) and (tdh) had high percentage of virulence (83.87% and 80.64%, respectively) from fish. Comparatively, fish isolates have a higher virulence percentage compared to seawater isolates. Only gene streptomycin resistance B (strB) from seawater had 100% of the resistance genes. All isolates were multi-antibiotic resistant. Seventeen antibiotic resistance patterns were observed. The isolates had plasmids of varying sizes ranging from 2.7 kb to 42.4 kb. Dendrogram based on antibiotic resistance patterns of V. parahaemolyticus isolates discriminated the isolates into three clusters.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the occurrence of pathogenic, multi-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus strains in Malaysian coastal waters and fish, and this could constitute potential public health risks.
Materials and Methods: Five treatment groups were established as follows: Group 1 (C), which was given distilled water; Group 2 (T0), which was administered with LA (10 mg/kg body weight [BW]); and Groups 3 (T1), 4 (T2), and 5 (T3), which were given LA (10 mg/kg BW) plus graded concentrations of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg BW of EBN, respectively. Rats were euthanized at week 5 to collect blood for superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay, and uterus for histomorphological study and expression analyses of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
Results: Results revealed that LA causes destruction of uterine lining cells and necrosis of uterine glands of exposed rats without EBN supplement while the degree of damage decreased among EBN treated groups; T3 showed the highest ameliorating effect against LA toxicity, as well as an increased number of uterine glands. Increased levels of SOD were also achieved in EBN supplemented groups than the controls. Results of immunohistochemistry showed significantly higher expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA levels (p<0.05) in T3 compared to other treatments. EBN maintained upregulation of antioxidant - reactive oxygen species balance.
Conclusion: The findings showed that EBN could ameliorate the detrimental effects of LA toxicity on the uterus possibly by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant (SOD) activity as well as expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA with cell proliferation roles.
Aim: This study was designed to determine whether the phenotypic antibiotic resistance pattern of B. pseudomallei is associated with the source of isolates and the genotype.
Materials and Methods: A collection of 111 B. pseudomallei isolates from veterinary cases of melioidosis and the environments (soil and water) were obtained from stock cultures of previous studies and were phylogenetically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (ST). The susceptibility to five antibiotics, namely meropenem (MEM), imipenem, ceftazidime (CAZ), cotrimoxazole (SXT), and co-amoxiclav (AMC), recommended in both acute and eradication phases of melioidosis treatment were tested using minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotics susceptibility test.
Results: Majority of isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested while few resistant strains to MEM, SXT, CAZ, and AMC were observed. Statistically significant association was found between resistance to MEM and the veterinary clinical isolates (p<0.05). The likelihood of resistance to MEM was significantly higher among the novel ST 1130 isolates found in veterinary cases as compared to others.
Conclusion: The resistance to MEM and SXT appeared to be higher among veterinary isolates, and the novel ST 1130 was more likely to be resistant to MEM as compared to others.
Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling was performed in 20 cats from the Gasing Veterinary Hospital in Selangor. Plasma and saliva samples were collected from 15 clinically ill cats and 5 healthy cats subjected to one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with primers targeting a highly conserved gene of U3-LTR-gag.
Results: Two clinically ill cats' plasma and saliva samples tested positive for FeLV RNA. Partial nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current isolates were 94-99% homologous to the previous Malaysian and Japanese FeLV isolates.
Conclusion: Current FeLV isolates from this study displayed higher similarity with the previous Malaysian isolates, signifying that a similar FeLV strain circulated among the cat population in Selangor.
Materials and Methods: Pulmonary abscess samples were cultured on several types of media, including Ashdown agar, Ashdown broth, and MacConkey agar. Type three secretion system orf 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and latex agglutination tests were performed to identify the bacteria. Morphological characteristics were compared to all previously published morphotypes. Subsequently, the bacteria were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Yersinia-like flagellum/Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis PCR. The results of the genotyping were afterward compared to all genotypes from Southeast Asia.
Results: Multiple morphotypes of B. pseudomallei were perceived during the growth on Ashdown agar. Furthermore, it was identified by MLST that the Type I and Type II morphotypes observed in this study were clones of a single ST, ST54, which is predominantly found in humans and the environment in Malaysia and Thailand, although a very limited number of reports was published in association with animals. Moreover, the E-BURST analysis showed that the ST is grouped together with isolates from Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Cambodia. ST54 was predicted to be the founding genotype of several STs from those regions.
Conclusion: B. pseudomallei ST54 that caused the death of a Bornean orangutan has a distant genetic relationship with other STs which were previously reported in Indonesia, implying a vast genetic diversity in Indonesia that has not been discovered yet.