Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

  1. Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK
    Vet World, 2016 Mar;9(3):231-4.
    PMID: 27057104 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.231-234
    This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp.
  2. Konto M, Fufa GI, Zakaria A, Tukur SM, Watanabe M, Ola-Fadunsin SD, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Oct;8(10):1167-71.
    PMID: 27047012 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1167-1171
    The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages.
  3. Mahmood ZK, Jesse FF, Saharee AA, Jasni S, Yusoff R, Wahid H
    Vet World, 2015 Sep;8(9):1105-17.
    PMID: 27047206 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1105-1117
    There is very little information regarding blood changes during the challenge of phospholipase D (PLD) in goats. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study the changes in blood after the challenge with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its exotoxin, PLD to fill in the gap of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) research.
  4. Afzali SF, Mohd Daud HH, Sharifpour I, Afsharnasab M, Shankar S
    Vet World, 2015 Sep;8(9):1038-44.
    PMID: 27047195 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1038-1044
    Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups.
  5. Latif NA, Abdullah FF, Othman AM, Rina A, Chung EL, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jul;8(7):924-7.
    PMID: 27047177 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.924-927
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis that affects sheep and goats. This study was designed to determine the presence of the causative organism in the female reproductive organs and associated lymph nodes in non-pregnant does experimentally inoculated through intradermal route in the chronic form.
  6. Bloh AH, Usup G, Ahmad A
    Vet World, 2016 Feb;9(2):142-6.
    PMID: 27051199 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.142-146
    AIM: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree.

    RESULTS: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity).

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  7. Abdullahi UF, Igwenagu E, Mu'azu A, Aliyu S, Umar MI
    Vet World, 2016 Jan;9(1):12-8.
    PMID: 27051178 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.12-18
    Biofilm has a tremendous impact in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, leading to a serious economic loss. Over the years, little attention has been given to biofilm in animals with most of the research geared toward human biofilm diseases. The greatest challenge posed by biofilm is in its incredible ability to resist most of the currently existing antibiotics. This mystery can best be demystified through understanding the mechanism of the quorum sensing which regulate the pathophysiology of biofilm. Ability of biofilm formation in a variety of inanimate surfaces such as animal food contact surfaces is responsible for a host of biofilm diseases affecting animals and humans. In this review, we highlighted some of the challenges of biofilm in livestock and food industries. Also highlighted are; mechanisms of biofilm development, best diagnostic approach and possible novel therapeutic measures needed to combat the menace of biofilm in veterinary medicine.
  8. Chung EL, Abdullah FF, Adamu L, Marza AD, Ibrahim HH, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jun;8(6):783-92.
    PMID: 27065648 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.783-792
    Pasteurella multocida a Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. Hemorrhagic septicemia is a disease caused by P. multocida serotype B:2 and E:2. The organism causes acute, a highly fatal septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, post mortem and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida Type B:2 infections initiated through the oral and subcutaneous routes.
  9. Htoo NN, Khaing AT, Abba Y, Htin NN, Abdullah JF, Kyaw T, et al.
    Vet World, 2015 Jun;8(6):718-22.
    PMID: 27065636 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.718-722
    This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids.
  10. Nasai NB, Abba Y, Abdullah FF, Marimuthu M, Tijjani A, Sadiq MA, et al.
    Vet World, 2016 Apr;9(4):417-20.
    PMID: 27182139 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.417-420
    Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep.
  11. Concessao P, Bairy LK, Raghavendra AP
    Vet World, 2020 Aug;13(8):1555-1566.
    PMID: 33061227 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1555-1566
    Background and Aim: Intoxication of arsenic in rats is known to result in neurological effects as well as liver and kidney dysfunction. Mucuna pruriens has been identified for its medicinal properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens on sodium arsenite-induced memory impairment, liver, and kidney functions in rats.

    Materials and Methods: The experiment was divided into short-term treatment (45 days) and long-term treatment (90 days), with each group divided into nine sub-groups consisting of six animals each. Sub-groups 1 and 2 served as normal, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) controls, respectively. Sub-groups 3-9 received sodium arsenite in drinking water (50 mg/L). In addition, sub-group 4 received NAC (210 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily, sub-groups 5-7 received aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens (350 mg/kg b.wt, 530 mg/kg b.wt, and 700 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily and sub-groups 8 and 9 received a combination of NAC and aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens (350 mg/kg b.wt and 530 mg/kg b.wt) orally once daily. Following the treatment, the blood was drawn retro-orbitally to assess the liver (serum alanine transaminase [ALT], serum aspartate transaminase, and serum alkaline phosphatase) and kidney (serum urea and serum creatinine) functions. Learning and memory were assessed by passive avoidance test. Animals were sacrificed by an overdose of ketamine, and their Nissl stained hippocampal sections were analyzed for alterations in neural cell numbers in CA1 and CA3 regions.

    Results: In the short-term treatment, groups administered with M. pruriens 530 mg/kg b.wt alone and combination of NAC + M. pruriens 350 mg/kg b.wt exhibited a significant improvement in memory retention, less severe neurodegeneration, and decrease in serum ALT levels. In long-term treatment, groups administered with M. pruriens 700 mg/kg b.wt alone and combination of NAC+M. pruriens 350 mg/kg b.wt, respectively, showed better memory retention, decreased neural deficits, and reduced levels of kidney and liver enzymes.

    Conclusion: The seed extract of M. pruriens showed significant enhancement in memory and learning. The number of surviving neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions also increased on treatment with M. pruriens. Serum ALT, serum urea, and serum creatinine levels showed significant improvement on long-term treatment with M. pruriens.

  12. Jesse FFA, Amira NA, Isa KM, Maqbool A, Ali NM, Chung ELT, et al.
    Vet World, 2019 Jul;12(7):978-983.
    PMID: 31528021 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.978-983
    Mannheimiosis or pneumonic pasteurellosis commonly occurs in small ruminants. Mannheimiosis is caused by Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica) a Gram-negative coccobacillus producing acute febrile and infectious condition resulting in death of animal if not diagnosed and treated promptly. M. haemolytica serotype A2 is a commensal of the nasopharynx, gaining access to the lungs when host defenses are compromised by stress or infection in small ruminants. Till date, there is a vast literature and research that has been conducted on the pathogenesis of M. haemolytica invariably on respiratory system and its related immune system and mechanisms. From the clinical point of view, infection or diseases involving vital organs will systemically affect the production and performance of the infected animal. Therefore, there is a huge gap of knowledge and research to answer the question whether there is any association between M. haemolytica infection with reproductive physiology and performance in small ruminants and how it affects the productivity level. This review will explore the possibilities of involvement and new potential research to be carried out to determine the involvement of male and female reproductive system with M. haemolytica infection among small ruminants.
  13. Faja OM, Sharad AA, Younis KM, Alwan MG, Mohammed BJ, Ahmad A
    Vet World, 2019 Jul;12(7):1140-1149.
    PMID: 31528045 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1140-1149
    Background and Aim: Despite the importance of the global emergence of Vibrioparahaemolyticus infections worldwide, there has been scanty information on its occurrence in Malaysian seawaters and fish. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus isolates using polymerase chain reaction targeted at toxin operon gene, thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), and tdh-related hemolysin genes and to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, genes, and plasmid profile of V. parahaemolyticus from Malaysian seawaters and fish.

    Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from four recreational beaches in Malaysia (Port Klang; Bachok; Port Dickson; and Mersing). Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar and chromogenic Vibrio agar were used for isolation and identification. Colonies with yellow color on TCBS and green color on chromogenic vibrio (CV) agar were considered to be V. parahaemolyticus and they were subjected to biochemical tests. All V. parahaemolyticus isolates were further subjected to identification using seven specific gene markers.

    Results: Seventy-three Vibrio isolates were recovered. Only one gene thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) from seawater isolates of Vibrio has high virulence gene percentage (95.23%). Two genes alkaline serine protease (asp) and (tdh) had high percentage of virulence (83.87% and 80.64%, respectively) from fish. Comparatively, fish isolates have a higher virulence percentage compared to seawater isolates. Only gene streptomycin resistance B (strB) from seawater had 100% of the resistance genes. All isolates were multi-antibiotic resistant. Seventeen antibiotic resistance patterns were observed. The isolates had plasmids of varying sizes ranging from 2.7 kb to 42.4 kb. Dendrogram based on antibiotic resistance patterns of V. parahaemolyticus isolates discriminated the isolates into three clusters.

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated the occurrence of pathogenic, multi-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus strains in Malaysian coastal waters and fish, and this could constitute potential public health risks.

  14. Albishtue AA, Yimer N, Zakaria MZA, Haron AW, Babji AS, Abubakar AA, et al.
    Vet World, 2019 Jul;12(7):1013-1021.
    PMID: 31528026 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1013-1021
    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplement on the uteri of rats exposed to lead acetate (LA) toxicity.

    Materials and Methods: Five treatment groups were established as follows: Group 1 (C), which was given distilled water; Group 2 (T0), which was administered with LA (10 mg/kg body weight [BW]); and Groups 3 (T1), 4 (T2), and 5 (T3), which were given LA (10 mg/kg BW) plus graded concentrations of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg BW of EBN, respectively. Rats were euthanized at week 5 to collect blood for superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay, and uterus for histomorphological study and expression analyses of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).

    Results: Results revealed that LA causes destruction of uterine lining cells and necrosis of uterine glands of exposed rats without EBN supplement while the degree of damage decreased among EBN treated groups; T3 showed the highest ameliorating effect against LA toxicity, as well as an increased number of uterine glands. Increased levels of SOD were also achieved in EBN supplemented groups than the controls. Results of immunohistochemistry showed significantly higher expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA levels (p<0.05) in T3 compared to other treatments. EBN maintained upregulation of antioxidant - reactive oxygen species balance.

    Conclusion: The findings showed that EBN could ameliorate the detrimental effects of LA toxicity on the uterus possibly by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant (SOD) activity as well as expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA with cell proliferation roles.

  15. Peter ID, Haron AW, Jesse FFA, Ajat M, Han MHW, Fitri WN, et al.
    Vet World, 2018 Nov;11(10):1466-1472.
    PMID: 30532503 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1466-1472
    Conventionally, plasma or milk progesterone evaluations are used to determine the reproductive status of female animals. Collection of such samples is often associated with difficulties of animal handling and restraint. Measurable quantities of progesterone metabolites are found in feces of animals. Their concentrations are known to be well correlated to plasma progesterone levels and are, therefore, used as non-invasive samples for assessing reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. Although the analysis of fecal progesterone metabolites has been widely accepted in many laboratories, several factors are known to affect the results from this valuable analytical technique. Some of these factors include storage/transportation media for fecal samples, type of solvent that is used for extraction of progesterone metabolites from feces, and the type and sensitivity of an assaying technique employed. Although fecal progesterone metabolites analysis is associated with some difficulties, it can effectively be used to monitor reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. This review aims to highlight the usefulness of fecal progesterone metabolite analysis as a non-invasive technique in monitoring reproductive function in animals. The article mainly focuses on the many opportunities and challenges associated with this analytical technique.
  16. Sadiq MA, Hassan L, Aziz SA, Zakaria Z, Musa HI, Amin MM
    Vet World, 2018 Nov;11(10):1404-1408.
    PMID: 30532493 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1404-1408
    Background: Melioidosis is a fatal emerging infectious disease of both man and animal caused by bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei. Variations were suggested to have existed among the different B. pseudomallei clinical strains/genotypes which may implicate bacterial susceptibility and resistance toward antibiotics.

    Aim: This study was designed to determine whether the phenotypic antibiotic resistance pattern of B. pseudomallei is associated with the source of isolates and the genotype.

    Materials and Methods: A collection of 111 B. pseudomallei isolates from veterinary cases of melioidosis and the environments (soil and water) were obtained from stock cultures of previous studies and were phylogenetically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (ST). The susceptibility to five antibiotics, namely meropenem (MEM), imipenem, ceftazidime (CAZ), cotrimoxazole (SXT), and co-amoxiclav (AMC), recommended in both acute and eradication phases of melioidosis treatment were tested using minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotics susceptibility test.

    Results: Majority of isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested while few resistant strains to MEM, SXT, CAZ, and AMC were observed. Statistically significant association was found between resistance to MEM and the veterinary clinical isolates (p<0.05). The likelihood of resistance to MEM was significantly higher among the novel ST 1130 isolates found in veterinary cases as compared to others.

    Conclusion: The resistance to MEM and SXT appeared to be higher among veterinary isolates, and the novel ST 1130 was more likely to be resistant to MEM as compared to others.

  17. Jajere SM
    Vet World, 2019;12(4):504-521.
    PMID: 31190705 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.504-521
    Salmonella genus represents the most common foodborne pathogens frequently isolated from food-producing animals that is responsible for zoonotic infections in humans and animal species including birds. Thus, Salmonella infections represent a major concern to public health, animals, and food industry worldwide. Salmonella enterica represents the most pathogenic specie and includes > 2600 serovars characterized thus far. Salmonella can be transmitted to humans along the farm-to-fork continuum, commonly through contaminated foods of animal origin, namely poultry and poultry-related products (eggs), pork, fish etc. Some Salmonella serovars are restricted to one specific host commonly referred to as "host-restricted" whereas others have broad host spectrum known as "host-adapted" serovars. For Salmonella to colonize its hosts through invading, attaching, and bypassing the host's intestinal defense mechanisms such as the gastric acid, many virulence markers and determinants have been demonstrated to play crucial role in its pathogenesis; and these factors included flagella, capsule, plasmids, adhesion systems, and type 3 secretion systems encoded on the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2, and other SPIs. The epidemiologically important non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars linked with a high burden of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks in humans worldwide included Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Newport. The increased number of NTS cases reported through surveillance in recent years from the United States, Europe and low- and middle-income countries of the world suggested that the control programs targeted at reducing the contamination of food animals along the food chain have largely not been successful. Furthermore, the emergence of several clones of Salmonella resistant to multiple antimicrobials worldwide underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discussed on the historical background, nomenclature and taxonomy, morphological features, physical and biochemical characteristics of NTS with a particular focus on the pathogenicity and virulence factors, host specificity, transmission, and antimicrobial resistance including multidrug resistance and its surveillance.
  18. Mummoorthy K, Yasmin AR, Arshad SS, Omar AR, Nur-Fazila SH, Anand P, et al.
    Vet World, 2021 Feb;14(2):405-409.
    PMID: 33776305 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.405-409
    Background and Aim: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified as Retroviridae gammaretrovirus. FeLV occurs worldwide, including Malaysia. Thus far, only one decade-old study on molecular characterization of Malaysian FeLV isolates exists, which resulted in a scarcity of updated information of current FeLV isolates circulating in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the status of FeLV in clinically ill cats and to study the molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of the current isolates.

    Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling was performed in 20 cats from the Gasing Veterinary Hospital in Selangor. Plasma and saliva samples were collected from 15 clinically ill cats and 5 healthy cats subjected to one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with primers targeting a highly conserved gene of U3-LTR-gag.

    Results: Two clinically ill cats' plasma and saliva samples tested positive for FeLV RNA. Partial nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current isolates were 94-99% homologous to the previous Malaysian and Japanese FeLV isolates.

    Conclusion: Current FeLV isolates from this study displayed higher similarity with the previous Malaysian isolates, signifying that a similar FeLV strain circulated among the cat population in Selangor.

  19. Johan CAC, Zainathan SC
    Vet World, 2020 Nov;13(11):2565-2577.
    PMID: 33363355 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2565-2577
    Iridoviruses, especially megalocytiviruses, are related to severe disease resulting in high economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. The ornamental fish industry has been affected severely due to Megalocytivirus infections. Megalocytivirus is a DNA virus that has three genera; including red sea bream iridovirus, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, and turbot reddish body iridovirus. Megalocytivirus causes non-specific clinical signs in ornamental fish. Cell culture, histology, immunofluorescence test, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay have been used to diagnose megalocytiviruses. Risk factors such as temperature, transportation (export and import), and life stages of ornamental fish have been reported for the previous cases due to Megalocytivirus infections. In addition, other prevention and control methods also have been practiced in farms to prevent Megalocytivirus outbreaks. This is the first review of megalocytiviruses in ornamental fish since its first detection in 1989. This review discusses the occurrences of Megalocytivirus in ornamental fish, including the history, clinical signs, detection method, risk factors, and prevention measures.
  20. Testamenti VA, Surya M, Saepuloh U, Iskandriati D, Tandang MV, Kristina L, et al.
    Vet World, 2020 Nov;13(11):2459-2468.
    PMID: 33363342 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2459-2468
    Background and Aim: Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease affecting humans and a wide range of animal species; it is often underdiagnosed and underreported in veterinary medicine in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize morphological and molecular features of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis which caused the death of a Bornean orangutan.

    Materials and Methods: Pulmonary abscess samples were cultured on several types of media, including Ashdown agar, Ashdown broth, and MacConkey agar. Type three secretion system orf 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and latex agglutination tests were performed to identify the bacteria. Morphological characteristics were compared to all previously published morphotypes. Subsequently, the bacteria were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Yersinia-like flagellum/Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis PCR. The results of the genotyping were afterward compared to all genotypes from Southeast Asia.

    Results: Multiple morphotypes of B. pseudomallei were perceived during the growth on Ashdown agar. Furthermore, it was identified by MLST that the Type I and Type II morphotypes observed in this study were clones of a single ST, ST54, which is predominantly found in humans and the environment in Malaysia and Thailand, although a very limited number of reports was published in association with animals. Moreover, the E-BURST analysis showed that the ST is grouped together with isolates from Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Cambodia. ST54 was predicted to be the founding genotype of several STs from those regions.

    Conclusion: B. pseudomallei ST54 that caused the death of a Bornean orangutan has a distant genetic relationship with other STs which were previously reported in Indonesia, implying a vast genetic diversity in Indonesia that has not been discovered yet.

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