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  1. Abjani F, Khan NA, Yousuf FA, Siddiqui R
    Cont Lens Anterior Eye, 2016 Jun;39(3):239-43.
    PMID: 26675112 DOI: 10.1016/j.clae.2015.11.004
    Acanthamoeba cysts are highly resistant to contact lens disinfecting solutions. Acanthamoeba cyst wall is partially made of 1,4 β-glucan (i.e., cellulose) and other complex polysaccharides making it a hardy shell that protects the resident amoeba. Here, we hypothesize that targeting the cyst wall structure in addition to antiamoebic compound would improve the efficacy of marketed contact lens disinfecting solutions. Using chlorhexidine as an antiamoebic compound and cellulase enzyme to disrupt cyst wall structure, the findings revealed that combination of both agents abolished viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. When tested alone, none of the agents nor contact lens disinfecting solutions completely destroyed A. castellanii cysts and trophozoites. The absence of cyst wall-degrading enzymes in marketed contact lens disinfecting solutions render them ineffective against Acanthamoeba cysts. It is concluded that the addition of cyst wall degrading molecules in contact lens disinfecting solutions will enhance their efficacy in decreasing the incidence of Acanthamoeba effectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acanthamoeba Keratitis/prevention & control*
  2. Siddiqui R, Aqeel Y, Khan NA
    Cont Lens Anterior Eye, 2016 Oct;39(5):389-93.
    PMID: 27133448 DOI: 10.1016/j.clae.2016.04.004
    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acanthamoeba Keratitis/prevention & control*
  3. Kusrini E, Sabira K, Hashim F, Abdullah NA, Usman A, Putra N, et al.
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2021 Mar;99(2):e178-e188.
    PMID: 32701190 DOI: 10.1111/aos.14541
    PURPOSE: Contact lenses have direct contact with the corneal surface and can induce sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dysprosium-based nanoparticles (Dy-based NPs), namely Fe3 O4 -PEG-Dy2 O3 nanocomposites and Dy(OH)3 nanorods, as an active component against Acanthamoeba sp., as well as the possibility of their loading onto contact lenses as the drug administering vehicle to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).

    METHODS: The Dy-based NPs were synthesized, and they were loaded onto commercial contact lenses. The loading content of the NPs and their release kinetics was determined based on the absorbance of their colloidal solution before and after soaking the contact lenses. The cytotoxicity of the NPs was evaluated, and the IC50 values of their antiamoebic activity against Acanthamoeba sp. were determined by MTT colorimetric assay, followed by observation on the morphological changes by using light microscopy. The mechanism of action of the Dy-based NPs against Acanthamoeba sp. was evaluated by DNA laddering assays.

    RESULTS: The loading efficiencies of the Dy-based NPs onto the contact lens were in the range of 30.6-36.1% with respect to their initial concentration (0.5 mg ml-1 ). The Dy NPs were released with the flux approximately 5.5-11 μg cm-2  hr-1 , and the release was completed within 10 hr. The emission of the NPs consistently showed a peak at 575 nm due to Dy3+ ion, offering the possible monitoring and tracking of the NPs. The SEM images indicated the NPs are aggregated on the surface of the contact lenses. The DNA ladder assay suggested that the cells underwent DNA fragmentation, and the cell death was due most probably to necrosis, rather than apoptosis. The cytotoxicity assay of Acanthamoeba sp. suggested that Fe3 O4 -PEG, Fe3 O4 -PEG-Dy2 O3 , Dy(NO3 )3 .6H2 O and Dy(OH)3 NPs have an antiamoebic activity with the IC50 value being 4.5, 5.0, 9.5 and 22.5 μg ml-1 , respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall findings in this study suggested that the Dy-based NPs can be considered as active antiamoebic agents and possess the potential as drugs against Acanthamoeba sp. The NPs could be loaded onto the contact lenses; thus, they can be potentially utilized to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).

    Matched MeSH terms: Acanthamoeba Keratitis/prevention & control*
  4. Abjani F, Khan NA, Jung SY, Siddiqui R
    Exp Parasitol, 2017 Dec;183:187-193.
    PMID: 28919333 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2017.09.007
    The aim of this study was (i) to assess the antimicrobial effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions marketed in Malaysia against common bacterial eye pathogens and as well as eye parasite, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and (ii) to determine whether targeting cyst wall would improve the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants. Using ISO 14729 Stand-Alone Test for disinfecting solutions, bactericidal and amoebicidal assays of six different contact lens solutions including Oxysept®, AO SEPT PLUS, OPTI-FREE® pure moist®, Renu® fresh™, FreshKon® CLEAR and COMPLETE RevitaLens™ were performed using Manufacturers Minimum recommended disinfection time (MRDT). The efficacy of contact lens solutions was determined against keratitis-causing microbes, namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Acanthamoeba castellanii. In addition, using chlorhexidine as an antiamoebic compound and cellulase enzyme to disrupt cyst wall structure, we determined whether combination of both agents can enhance efficacy of marketed contact lens disinfectants against A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts, in vitro. The results revealed that all contact lens disinfectants tested showed potent bactericidal effects exhibiting 100% kill against all bacterial species tested. In contrast, none of the contact lens disinfectants had potent effects against Acanthamoeba cysts viability. When tested against trophozoites, two disinfectants, Oxysept Multipurpose and AO-sept Multipurpose showed partial amoebicidal effects. Using chlorhexidine as an antiamoebic compound and cellulase enzyme to disrupt cyst wall structure, the findings revealed that combination of both agents in contact lens disinfectants abolished viability of A. castellanii cysts and trophozoites. Given the inefficacy of contact lens disinfectants tested in this study, these findings present a significant concern to public health. These findings revealed that targeting cyst wall by using cyst wall degrading molecules in contact lens disinfecting solutions will enhance their efficacy against this devastating eye infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acanthamoeba Keratitis/prevention & control
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