The present study examines the relationship between the dose of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested by patients and the occurrence of serum acetaminophen levels above the 'possible toxicity' line in patients presenting at the hospital after acetaminophen overdose. The prognostic value of patient-reported dosage cut-offs of 8, 10 and 12 g was determined.
Paracetamol (PCM)-loaded composite nanoparticles (NPs) composed of a biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) polymer matrix filled with organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent nanoprecipitation in a microfluidic co-flow glass capillary device. The incorporation of MMT in the polymer improved both the drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug loading, and extended the rate of drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). The particle size increased on increasing both the drug loading and the concentration of MMT in the polymer matrix, and decreased on increasing the aqueous to organic flow rate ratio. The drug encapsulation efficiency in the NPs was higher at higher aqueous to organic flow rate ratio due to faster formation of the NPs. The PCM-loaded PLA NPs containing 2 wt% MMT in PLA prepared at an aqueous to organic flow rate ratio of 10 with an orifice size of 200 μm exhibited a spherical shape with a mean size of 296 nm, a drug encapsulation efficiency of 38.5% and a drug loading of 5.4%. The encapsulation of MMT and PCM in the NPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
During recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of nanoemulsion as a drug-carrier system for topical delivery. A nanoemulsion is a transparent mixture of oil, surfactant and water with a very low viscosity, usually the product of its high water content. The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied.