Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2012 Feb;21(2):207-13.
    PMID: 21812068 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2218
    The present study examines the relationship between the dose of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested by patients and the occurrence of serum acetaminophen levels above the 'possible toxicity' line in patients presenting at the hospital after acetaminophen overdose. The prognostic value of patient-reported dosage cut-offs of 8, 10 and 12 g was determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacokinetics; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/poisoning*
  2. Anuar MS, Briscoe BJ
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2010 Aug;36(8):972-9.
    PMID: 20515396 DOI: 10.3109/03639041003610807
    It is generally accepted that the tablet elastic relaxation during compaction plays a vital role in undermining the final tablet mechanical integrity. One of the least investigated stages of the compaction process is the ejection stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/chemistry*
  3. Said MM, Gibbons S, Moffat AC, Zloh M
    Int J Pharm, 2011 Aug 30;415(1-2):102-9.
    PMID: 21645600 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.05.057
    The influx of medicines from different sources into healthcare systems of developing countries presents a challenge to monitor their origin and quality. The absence of a repository of reference samples or spectra prevents the analysis of tablets by direct comparison. A set of paracetamol tablets purchased in Malaysian pharmacies were compared to a similar set of sample purchased in the UK using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Additional samples of products containing ibuprofen or paracetamol in combination with other actives were added to the study as negative controls. NIR spectra of the samples were acquired and compared by using multivariate modeling and classification algorithms (PCA/SIMCA) and stored in a spectral database. All analysed paracetamol samples contained the purported active ingredient with only 1 out of 20 batches excluded from the 95% confidence interval, while the negative controls were clearly classified as outliers of the set. Although the substandard products were not detected in the purchased sample set, our results indicated variability in the quality of the Malaysian tablets. A database of spectra was created and search methods were evaluated for correct identification of tablets. The approach presented here can be further developed as a method for identifying substandard pharmaceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/analysis; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/chemistry*
  4. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2011 Feb;20(2):203-8.
    PMID: 21254292 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2060
    Acetaminophen overdose may be accompanied by electrolyte disturbances. The basis for electrolyte change appears to be due to increased fractional urinary electrolyte excretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/blood; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/poisoning*
  5. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Khan HR, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM, et al.
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2010 Sep;107(3):718-23.
    PMID: 20374238 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00567.x
    Intravenous N-acetylcysteine is usually regarded as a safe antidote. However, during the infusion of the loading dose, different types of adverse drug reactions (ADR) may occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between the incidence of different types of ADR and serum acetaminophen concentration in patients presenting to the hospital with acetaminophen overdose. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to the hospital for acute acetaminophen overdose over a period of 5 years (1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to test differences between groups depending on the normality of the data. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Of 305 patients with acetaminophen overdose, 146 (47.9%) were treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and 139 (45.6%) were included in this study. Different types of ADR were observed in 94 (67.6%) patients. Low serum acetaminophen concentrations were significantly associated with cutaneous anaphylactoid reactions but not other types of ADR. Low serum acetaminophen concentration was significantly associated with flushing (p < 0.001), rash (p < 0.001) and pruritus (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in serum acetaminophen concentrations between patients with and without the following ADR: gastrointestinal reactions (p = 0.77), respiratory reactions (p = 0.96), central nervous reactions (p = 0.82) and cardiovascular reactions (p = 0.37). In conclusion, low serum acetaminophen concentrations were associated with higher cutaneous anaphylactoid reactions. Such high serum acetaminophen concentrations may be protective against N-acetylcysteine-induced cutaneous ADR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/adverse effects; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/blood*
  6. Salim N, Basri M, Rahman MB, Abdullah DK, Basri H
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:4739-47.
    PMID: 22973096 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S34700
    During recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of nanoemulsion as a drug-carrier system for topical delivery. A nanoemulsion is a transparent mixture of oil, surfactant and water with a very low viscosity, usually the product of its high water content. The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacokinetics; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/chemistry
  7. Yam MF, Ang LF, Basir R, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Asmawi MZ
    Inflammopharmacology, 2009 Feb;17(1):50-4.
    PMID: 19127348 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-008-8038-3
    The anti-pyretic activity of a standardized methanol/water (50/50) extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (SEOS) was investigated for its effect on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The SEOS showed no effect on normal body temperature. Doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of SEOS significantly reduced the yeast-induced elevation in body temperature. This effect persisted up to 4 h following the administration of the extract. The anti-pyretic effect of SEOS was comparable with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen in U.S) (150 mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. HPLC study revealed that rosmarinic acid, sinensetin, eupatorin and tetramethoxyflavone were present in SEOS in the amounts of 7.58%, 0.2%, 0.34% and 0.24% respectively. The LD(50) of the extract in rats was higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the present study ascertained that SEOS possesses a significant anti-pyretic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage*; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/isolation & purification; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity
  8. Kusrini E, Arbianti R, Sofyan N, Abdullah MA, Andriani F
    PMID: 24177873 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.09.132
    In the presence of hydroxyl and amine groups, chitosan is highly reactive; therefore, it could be used as a carrier in drug delivery. For this study, chitosan-Sm complexes with different concentrations of samarium from 2.5 to 25 wt.% have been successfully synthesized by the impregnation method. Chitosan combined with Sm3+ ions produced a drug carrier material with fluorescence properties; thus, it could also be used as an indicator of drug release with ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug. We evaluated the spectroscopic and interaction properties of chitosan and Sm3+ ions, the interaction of chitosan-Sm matrices with IBU as a model drug, and the effect of Sm3+ ions addition on the chitosan ability to adsorb the drug. The result showed that the hypersensitive fluorescence intensity of chitosan-Sm (2.5 wt.%) is higher than the others, even though the adsorption efficiency of chitosan-Sm 2.5wt.% is lower (29.75%) than that of chitosan-Sm 25 wt.% (33.04%). Chitosan-Sm 25 wt.% showed the highest efficiency of adsorption of ibuprofen (33.04%). In the release process of ibuprofen from the chitosan-Sm-IBU matrix, the intensity of orange fluorescent properties in the hypersensitive peak of 4G5/2→6H7/2 transition at 590 nm was observed. Fluorescent intensity increased with the cumulative amount of IBU released; therefore, the release of IBU from the Sm-modified chitosan complex can be monitored by the changes in fluorescent intensity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage*
  9. Marzilawati AR, Ngau YY, Mahadeva S
    PMID: 23021009 DOI: 10.1186/2050-6511-13-8
    The metabolism of paracetamol in Asians is thought to differ from Westerners. Detailed clinical features of paracetamol -induced hepatotoxicity among Asians remains largely unreported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity*
  10. Wai BH, Heok KE
    Ethn Health, 1998 Nov;3(4):255-63.
    PMID: 10403107
    This study was undertaken to determine whether there were ethnic and social variations in parasuicide in the population of Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/poisoning
  11. VELLA F, Phoon WO
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Jun;13:309-12.
    PMID: 13841617
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity*
  12. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/isolation & purification; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology
  13. Othman R, Vladisavljević GT, Thomas NL, Nagy ZK
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 May 01;141:187-195.
    PMID: 26852102 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.042
    Paracetamol (PCM)-loaded composite nanoparticles (NPs) composed of a biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) polymer matrix filled with organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent nanoprecipitation in a microfluidic co-flow glass capillary device. The incorporation of MMT in the polymer improved both the drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug loading, and extended the rate of drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). The particle size increased on increasing both the drug loading and the concentration of MMT in the polymer matrix, and decreased on increasing the aqueous to organic flow rate ratio. The drug encapsulation efficiency in the NPs was higher at higher aqueous to organic flow rate ratio due to faster formation of the NPs. The PCM-loaded PLA NPs containing 2 wt% MMT in PLA prepared at an aqueous to organic flow rate ratio of 10 with an orifice size of 200 μm exhibited a spherical shape with a mean size of 296 nm, a drug encapsulation efficiency of 38.5% and a drug loading of 5.4%. The encapsulation of MMT and PCM in the NPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacokinetics; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/chemistry
  14. Akhter S, Basirun WJ, Alias Y, Johan MR, Bagheri S, Shalauddin M, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2018 06 15;551:29-36.
    PMID: 29753720 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2018.05.004
    In the present study, a nanocomposite of f-MWCNTs-chitosan-Co was prepared by the immobilization of Co(II) on f-MWCNTs-chitosan by a self-assembly method and used for the quantitative determination of paracetamol (PR). The composite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The electroactivity of cobalt immobilized on f-MWCNTs-chitosan was assessed during the electro-oxidation of paracetamol. The prepared GCE modified f-MWCNTs/CTS-Co showed strong electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PR. The electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under favorable experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear dynamic range between 0.1 and 400 μmol L-1 with a detection limit of 0.01 μmol L-1 for the PR solution. The fabricated sensor exhibited significant selectivity towards PR detection. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied for the determination of PR in commercial tablets and human serum sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/analysis; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/blood
  15. Shariffuddin II, Teoh WH, Wahab S, Wang CY
    BMC Anesthesiol, 2018 01 05;18(1):3.
    PMID: 29304735 DOI: 10.1186/s12871-017-0464-6
    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory surgery has recently gain popularity, as it is a good method of optimizinghospital resources utilization. To support ambulatory surgery, anaesthetic goals nowrevolve around patients' early recovery with minimal pain and nausea, expedientdischarge home and prompt resumption of activities of daily living. In this study, weevaluated the effect of a single pre-induction dose of dexmedetomidine on anaestheticrequirements, postoperative pain and clinical recovery after ambulatory ureteroscopy andureteric stenting under general anaesthesia.

    METHODS: Sixty patients were randomised to receive IV dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg-1 (Group DEX, n = 30) or IV saline (Group P, n = 30). General anaesthesia was maintained with Sevoflurane: oxygen: air, titrated to BIS 40-60. Pain intensity, sedation, rescue analgesics, nausea/vomiting and resumption of daily activities were recorded at 1 h, and postoperative day (POD) 1-5.

    RESULTS: Group DEX patients had significant reduction in sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), mean (SD) DEX vs. Placebo 0.6 (0.2) vs. 0.9 (0.1), p = 0.037; reduced postoperative resting pain at 1 h (VAS 0-10) (mean (SD) 1.00 (1.84) vs. 2.63 (2.78), p = 0.004), POD 1 (mean (SD) 1.50 (1.48) vs. 2.87 (2.72), p = 0.002), POD 2 (0.53 (0.97) vs. 1.73 (1.96), p = 0.001) and POD 3 (0.30 (0.75) vs. 0.89 (1.49), p = 0.001). DEX patients also had less pain on movement POD 1 (3.00 (2.12) vs. 4.30 (3.10), p = 0.043) and POD 2 (2.10 (1.98) vs. 3.10 (2.46), p = 0.040), with higher resumption of daily activities by 48 h compared to placebo, 87% vs. 63%, p = 0.04.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a single dose of dexmedetomidine was a useful adjuvant in reducing MAC and postoperative pain (at 1 h and POD 1-3), facilitating faster return to daily activities by 48 h.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN12617001120369 , 31st July 2017, retrospectively registered.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology
  16. Zakaria ZA, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Hanan Kumar G, Abdul Ghani ZD, Sulaiman MR, Rathna Devi G, et al.
    Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2006 Dec;84(12):1291-9.
    PMID: 17487238
    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests, whereas the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, which was obtained after soaking the air-dried leaves in distilled water for 72 h and then preparing in concentrations of 10%, 50%, and 100% (v/v), was administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. At all concentrations tested, the extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities in a concentration-independent manner. Our findings that the aqueous extract of M. malabathricum possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities supports previous claims on its traditional uses to treat various ailments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology*; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/chemistry
  17. Marzida, M.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(2):63-69.
    It is important to provide effective postoperative analgesia following a Caesarean section because mothers wish to be pain-free, mobile and alert while caring for their babies. The role of regular oral diclofenac as postoperative analgesia was evaluated in a randomized controlled study and it was compared to the established method of parenteral pethidine. Forty healthy women scheduled for elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with 2-2.5 mg of heavy bupivacaine 0.5% were randomized to receive either 75 mg of oral diclofenac twice daily or 1 mg/kg of subcutaneous pethidine every 8 hourly. Efficacy of pain relief (visual analogue score), patients' satisfaction and side effects such as sedation, nausea and vomiting were recorded for three days. The demographic variables were similar in both groups. Pain relief was adequate and comparable in both groups with similar mean visual analogue score during the second and third day of the study period. However, on the first postoperative day, 60% of the diclofenac group population required rescuemedication consisting of subcutaneous pethidine in order to achieve the same pain scores as those in the pethidine group who did not require any rescue medications. Women who received oral diclofenac reported lower sedation and higher overall satisfaction. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in both groups. This concluded that although oral diclofenac 75mg twice daily may not be superior to the traditional method of subcutaneous pethidine for pain relief following caesarean section, it can still be used alone as an alternative, as it has other benefits of a non-opioid analgesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  18. Lee MT, Chen YH, Mackie K, Chiou LC
    J Pain, 2020 Oct 15.
    PMID: 33069869 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2020.09.003
    Analgesic tolerance to opioids contributes to the opioid crisis by increasing the quantity of opioids prescribed and consumed. Thus, there is a need to develop non-opioid-based pain-relieving regimens as well as strategies to circumvent opioid tolerance. Previously, we revealed a non-opioid analgesic mechanism induced by median nerve electrostimulation at the overlaying PC6 (Neiguan) acupoint (MNS-PC6). Here, we further examined the efficacy of MNS-PC6 in morphine-tolerant mice with neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Daily treatments of MNS-PC6 (2 Hz, 2 mA), but not electrostimulation at a nonmedian nerve-innervated location, for a week post-CCI induction significantly suppressed established mechanical allodynia in CCI-mice in an orexin-1 (OX1) and cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor-dependent fashion. This antiallodynic effect induced by repeated MNS-PC6 was comparable to that induced by repeated gabapentin (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or single morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments, but without tolerance, unlike repeated morphine-induced analgesia. Furthermore, single and repeated MNS-PC6 treatments remained fully effective in morphine-tolerant CCI-mice, also in an OX1 and CB1 receptor-dependent fashion. In CCI-mice receiving escalating doses of morphine for 21 days (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg), single and repeated MNS-PC6 treatments remained fully effective. Therefore, repeated MNS-PC6 treatments induce analgesia without tolerance, and retain efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice via a mechanism that involves OX1 and CB1 receptors. This study suggests that MNS-PC6 is an alternative pain management strategy that maybe useful for combatting the opioid epidemic, and opioid-tolerant patients receiving palliative care. PERSPECTIVES: Median nerve stimulation relieves neuropathic pain in mice without tolerance and retains efficacy even in mice with analgesic tolerance to escalating doses of morphine, via an opioid-independent, orexin-endocannabinoid-mediated mechanism. This study provides a proof of concept for utilizing peripheral nerve stimulating devices for pain management in opioid-tolerant patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  19. Chua YA, Nurhaslina H, Gan SH
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2008 Dec;30(10):739-43.
    PMID: 19271022 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2008.30.10.1316830
    Because durian (Durio zibethinus), which is known in Southeast Asia as "the king of fruits", is thought to have special body-warming properties, it should not be consumed with paracetamol due to a risk of toxic effects. The claim of warming properties, however, has not been scientifically proven. This study was conducted to investigate durian's hyperthermic effect and its toxicity when consumed together with paracetamol in rats. Five groups of rats (n=6) were fed with: 1) distilled water (4 ml/250 g), 2) homogenized durian (4 g/250 g), 3) paracetamol solution (2400 mg/kg), 4) durian (4 g/250 g) followed by paracetamol solution (2400 mg/kg), or 5) prazosin solution (15 mg/kg, pregavaged) followed 1 h later by durian (4 g/250 g) and paracetamol solution (2400 mg/kg). Rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were taken from each rat at baseline and after the various administrations at 1, 2 and 5 h. Our results showed that the body temperature of rats in the durian-treated group was not significantly elevated when compared to the control. However, there was a significant decrease in body temperature over time in animals from groups 4 and 5. We did not, however, observe a consistent pattern of blood pressure change. Serum chemical analysis for ALT also did not show any significant change in any of the groups. In conclusion, contrary to what some believe, even though durian was found to increase body temperature in some rats, this increment was not significant. Rats receiving the durian-paracetamol combination showed a significant drop in body temperature, which may explain the belief that the two mixtures are toxic. However, the exact mechanism of toxicity is still unknown.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity
  20. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Syed Sulaiman SA, Sweileh WM, Al-Jabi SW
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2010 Mar;29(3):153-60.
    PMID: 20071472 DOI: 10.1177/0960327109359642
    Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is widely recognized as the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose. However, its use is not without adverse drug reactions (ADR) that might affect therapeutic outcome or lead to treatment delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/poisoning*
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