Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Chua EW, Miller AL, Kennedy MA
    Anal Biochem, 2015 May 15;477:115-7.
    PMID: 25766577 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.02.023
    We compared four brands of microtubes with respect to their suitability for long-range polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). One of the four brands was found to have an inhibitory effect, decreasing PCR yields. The effect was universal across different PCR or enzyme systems. Increased ultraviolet absorbance suggests leaching of unknown chemical species into PCR mixtures. However, this could not be confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Nevertheless, our article demonstrates a clear impact of the choice of microtubes on long-range PCR success. Due consideration should be given to the PCR microtubes when determining optimal reaction conditions for long-range PCR.
  2. Osahor AN, Tan CY, Sim EU, Lee CW, Narayanan K
    Anal Biochem, 2014 Oct 1;462:26-8.
    PMID: 24929088 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2014.05.030
    When recombineering bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), it is common practice to design the ends of the donor molecule with 50 bp of homology specifying its insertion site. We demonstrate that desired recombinants can be produced using intermolecular homologies as short as 15 bp. Although the use of shorter donor end regions decreases total recombinants by several fold, the frequency of recombinants with correctly inserted donor molecules was high enough for easy detection by simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. This observation may have important implications for the design of oligonucleotides for recombineering, including significant cost savings, especially for high-throughput projects that use large quantities of primers.
  3. Loh Q, Omar N, Glökler J, Lim TS
    Anal Biochem, 2014 Oct 15;463:67-9.
    PMID: 24972268 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2014.06.012
    Immunoassays are often coupled to peroxidase activity for antigen detection. Sensitivity and speed of detection has been increased by the advent of hybrid methods such as immuno-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). However, a more simplified immunoassay that retains both colorimetric peroxidase detection and effective DNA amplification in a setting closer to field application conditions has been nonexistent. Here we describe a method that successfully combines a competitive immunoassay with the new isothermal quadruplex-primed amplification (QPA) to generate excess quadruplex reporter molecules with intrinsic peroxidase DNAzyme activity.
  4. Narayanan K, Lee CW, Radu A, Sim EU
    Anal Biochem, 2013 Aug 15;439(2):142-4.
    PMID: 23608053 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2013.04.010
    Successful gene delivery into mammalian cells using bactofection requires entry of the bacterial vector via cell surface integrin receptors followed by release of plasmid DNA into the cellular environment. We show, for the first time, that addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine improves entry of invasive Escherichia coli into HeLa cells and enhances up to 2.8-fold green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression from a reporter plasmid. The addition of Lipofectamine may be applicable to other bacterial vectors to increase their DNA delivery efficiency into mammalian cells.
  5. Loh Q, Bahara NH, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Anal Biochem, 2012 Dec 1;431(1):54-6.
    PMID: 22975202 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2012.08.025
    The quality of a nucleotide-based library such as a synthetic antibody library is highly dependent on the diversity available. Diversity can be generated using degenerate oligonucleotides introduced during gene assembly. Conventional approaches to gene assembly are not efficient for oligonucleotides with long stretches of degeneracy. We propose an efficient alternative for simultaneous introduction of three randomized regions in a synthetic antibody gene via temperature cascading. The strategy takes advantage of DNA reannealing kinetics. The strategy can be adopted for generating diversity of gene inserts during the construction of nucleotide-based libraries.
  6. An Y, Cipollo JF
    Anal Biochem, 2011 Aug 1;415(1):67-80.
    PMID: 21545787 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.04.018
    Here a mass spectrometry-based platform for the analysis of glycoproteins is presented. Glycopeptides and released glycans are analyzed, the former by quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (QoTOF LC/MS) and the latter by permethylation analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF MS. QoTOF LC/MS analysis reveals the stochastic distribution of glycoforms at occupied sequons, and the latter provides a semiquantitative assessment of overall protein glycosylation. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was used for unbiased enrichment of glycopeptides and was validated using five model N-glycoproteins bearing a wide array of glycans, including high-mannose, complex, and hybrid subtypes such as sulfo and sialyl forms. Sialyl and especially sulfated glycans are difficult to analyze because these substitutions are labile. The conditions used here allow detection of these compounds quantitatively, intact, and in the context of overall glycosylation. As a test case, we analyzed influenza B/Malaysia/2506/2004 hemagglutinin, a component of the 2006-2007 influenza vaccine. It bears 11 glycosylation sites. Approximately 90% of its glycans are high mannose, and 10% are present as complex and hybrid types, including those with sulfate. The stochastic distribution of glycoforms at glycosylation sites is revealed. This platform should have wide applications to glycoproteins in basic sciences and industry because no apparent bias for any glycoforms is observed.
  7. Chen Q, Narayanan K
    Anal Biochem, 2011 Jul 1;414(1):169-71.
    PMID: 21396906 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.03.006
    The phage N15 protelomerase enzyme (TelN) is essential for the replication of its genome by resolution of its telRL domain, located within a telomerase occupancy site (tos), into hairpin telomeres. Isolation of TelN for in vitro processing of tos, however, is a highly complex process, requiring multiple purification steps. In this study a simplified protocol for crude total protein extraction is described that retains the tos-cleaving activity of TelN for at least 4 weeks, greatly simplifying in vitro testing of its activity. This protocol may be extended for functional analysis of other phage and bacterial proteins, particularly DNA-processing enzymes.
  8. Daud SS, Ibrahim K, Choong SS, Vengidasan L, Chong LA, Ariffin H
    Anal Biochem, 2010 Feb 15;397(2):181-5.
    PMID: 19822126 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2009.10.008
    Following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), it is important to determine whether engraftment is successful and to track the dynamic changes of the graft. Tandem repeats such as minisatellites and microsatellites are currently the most established markers for chimerism application. We have developed a reliable method to quantitatively evaluate engraftment status in post-allogeneic HSCT patients using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers and "lab-on-a-chip" microfluidic electrophoresis technology. Following identification of an informative marker by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), donor chimerism percentage was calculated based on a standard curve generated from artificially mixed patient-donor DNA-specific alleles in serial dilutions. All PCR products were mixed with commercial gel dye and loaded into Agilent DNA 1000 microfluidic LabChips for DNA sizing and quantitation. In 44 patients, separation of pretransplant and donor DNA fragments was resolved clearly and accomplished rapidly within 30min. Chimerism analysis using this platform is able to detect an amount as low as 6.3% donor DNA with acceptable coefficient of variation values. We also demonstrated concordant chimerism analysis findings using both microchip tandem repeats and real-time PCR quantitation of insertion-deletion polymorphisms. This microchip platform obviates the need for fluorescently labeled primers or any post-PCR sample manipulation. Quantitative monitoring of post-HSCT chimerism status using microfluidic electrophoresis is a useful tool for both large- and small-scale post-HSCT chimerism centers.
  9. Azmi NE, Ahmad M, Abdullah J, Sidek H, Heng LY, Karuppiah N
    Anal Biochem, 2009 May 1;388(1):28-32.
    PMID: 19454217 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2009.02.005
    An optical biosensor based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) immobilized in a chitosan film for the determination of ammonium in water samples is described. The biosensor film was deposited on a glass slide via a spin-coating method. The ammonium was measured based on beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation in the presence of alpha-ketoglutaric acid at a wavelength of 340 nm. The biosensor showed optimum activity at pH 8. The optimum chitosan concentrations and enzyme loading were found to be at 2% (w/v) and 0.08 mg, respectively. Optimum concentrations of NADH and alpha-ketoglutaric acid both were obtained at 0.15 mM. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in the ammonium concentration range of 0.005 to 0.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.005 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor was good, with an observed relative standard deviation of 5.9% (n=8). The biosensor was found to be stable for at least 1 month when stored dry at 4 degrees C.
  10. Chew FN, Tan WS, Ling TC, Tan CS, Tey BT
    Anal Biochem, 2009 Jan 15;384(2):353-5.
    PMID: 18952038 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2008.10.010
    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a versatile reporter protein and has been widely used in biological research. However, its quantitation requires expensive equipment such as a spectrofluorometer. In the current study, a gel documentation imaging system using a native polyacrylamide gel for the quantitation of GFP was developed. The assay was evaluated for its precision, linearity, reproducibility, and sensitivity in the presence of Escherichia coli cells and was compared with the spectrofluorometric method. Using this newly established, gel-based imaging technique; the amount of GFP can be quantified accurately.
  11. Rahman RN, Baharum SN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Anal Biochem, 2005 Jun 15;341(2):267-74.
    PMID: 15907872
    An organic solvent-tolerant S5 lipase was purified by affinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the lipase was estimated to be 60 kDa with 387 purification fold. The optimal temperature and pH were 45 degrees C and 9.0, respectively. The purified lipase was stable at 45 degrees C and pH 6-9. It exhibited the highest stability in the presence of various organic solvents such as n-dodecane, 1-pentanol, and toluene. Ca2+ and Mg2+ stimulated lipase activity, whereas EDTA had no effect on its activity. The S5 lipase exhibited the highest activity in the presence of palm oil as a natural oil and triolein as a synthetic triglyceride. It showed random positional specificity on the thin-layer chromatography.
  12. Loh Q, Leong SW, Tye GJ, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Anal Biochem, 2015 May 15;477:56-61.
    PMID: 25769419 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.02.026
    The low presentation efficiency of Fab (fragment antigen binding) fragments during phage display is largely due to the complexity of disulphide bond formation. This can result in the presentation of Fab fragments devoid of a light chain during phage display. Here we propose the use of a coplasmid system encoding several molecular chaperones (DsbA, DsbC, FkpA, and SurA) to improve Fab packaging. A comparison was done using the Fab fragment from IgG and IgD. We found that the use of the coplasmid during phage packaging was able to improve the presentation efficiency of the Fab fragment on phage surfaces. A modified version of panning using the coplasmid system was evaluated and was successful at enriching Fab binders. Therefore, the coplasmid system would be an attractive alternative for improved Fab presentation for phage display.
  13. Yeang HY, Yusof F, Abdullah L
    Anal Biochem, 1995 Mar 20;226(1):35-43.
    PMID: 7785777
    Many proteins derived from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis that remain soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be precipitated by phosphotungstic acid (PTA). A combination of 5% TCA and 0.2% PTA precipitates a wide range of proteins effectively even when they are present in low concentrations (below 1 microgram ml-1). In addition to its protein purification function, acid precipitation also increases the sensitivity of the subsequent protein assay by allowing the test sample to be concentrated. Another advantage of protein precipitation by TCA and PTA is that very small amounts of protein (of the order of 10 micrograms) can be repeatably recovered without the use of precipitate-bulking agents such as sodium deoxycholate. This general procedure of protein purification and concentration is simple and rapid, but the use of PTA may not be fully compatible with the Bradford protein assay. A modified Lowry microassay is described which enables about 3 micrograms ml-1 to be quantitated at the photometric absorbance of 0.05. When used in conjunction with protein concentration by precipitating with TCA/PTA, approximately 0.4 microgram ml-1 protein present in 6 ml of solution can be assayed.
  14. Ong KK, Khor HT, Tan DT
    Anal Biochem, 1991 Aug 01;196(2):211-4.
    PMID: 1776669
    A rapid, easy, and sensitive method is described in this paper for the assay of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. [14C]HMG CoA was used as the substrate and the product formed, i.e., [14C]mevalonate, was allowed to be converted to its lactone form (mevalonolactone) in the presence of HCl. The reaction mixture was applied to a column containing an anionic exchanger. The column was made up of QAE-Sephadex (A25, formate form) packed to a height of 4 cm in Pasteur pipets. Under these conditions, mevalonolactone was not retained by the column and was eluted with ammonium formate solution while HMG CoA, being negatively charged, was retained by the gel and eluted by HCl above 0.05 M. Determination of the amount of radioactivity in mevalonolactone was then used to quantitate the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This assay has been successfully used for determining the activity of this enzyme in a microsomal fraction prepared from the liver of the rat.
  15. Tan NH, Tan CS
    Anal Biochem, 1988 May 1;170(2):282-8.
    PMID: 3394929
    A convenient acidimetric assay for phospholipase A using egg yolk suspension as substrate has been developed. The substrate mixture consists of 1 part egg yolk, 1 part 8.1 mM sodium deoxycholate, and 1 part 18 mM calcium chloride. Phospholipase A activity is measured by following the initial rate of pH change, which is linear between pH 8.0 and 7.75 and is proportional to enzyme concentration over a wide range. The assay is highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation of 3%, and as sensitive as most established assays for phospholipase A. The assay uses inexpensive and easily available substrate and is simple to perform. It is particularly useful for monitoring phospholipase A activity in chromatography fractions.
  16. Liew PS, Chen Q, Ng AWR, Chew YC, Ravin NV, Sim EUH, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2019 10 15;583:113361.
    PMID: 31306622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113361
    Phage N15 protelomerase (TelN) cleaves double-stranded circular DNA containing a telomerase-occupancy-site (tos) and rejoins the resulting linear-ends to form closed-hairpin-telomeres in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Continued TelN expression is essential to support resolution of the linear structure. In mammalian cells, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show that phage TelN, expressed transiently and stably in human and mouse cells, recapitulates its native activities in these exogenous environments. We found TelN to accurately resolve tos-DNA in vitro and in vivo within human and mouse cells into linear DNA-containing terminal telomeres that are resistant to RecBCD degradation, a hallmark of protelomerase processing. In stable cells, TelN activity was detectable for at least 60 days, which suggests the possibility of limited silencing of its expression. Correspondingly, linear plasmid containing a 100 kb human β-globin gene expressed for at least 120 h in non-β-globin-expressing mouse cells with TelN presence. Our results demonstrate TelN is able to cut and heal DNA as hairpin-telomeres within mammalian cells, providing a tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts. The TelN protelomerase may be useful for exploring novel technologies for genome interrogation and chromosome engineering.
  17. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Swarup S, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2019 07 01;576:20-32.
    PMID: 30970239 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.04.001
    The variation in the extracellular metabolites of RAW 264.7 cells obtained from different passage numbers (passage 9, 12 and 14) was examined. The impact of different harvesting protocols (trypsinization and scraping) on recovery of intracellular metabolites was then assessed. The similarity and variation in the cell metabolome was investigated using 1H NMR metabolic profiling modeled using multivariate data analysis. The characterization and quantification of metabolites was performed to determine the passage-related and harvesting-dependent effects on impacted metabolic networks. The trypsinized RAW cells from lower passages gave higher intensities of most identified metabolites, including asparagine, serine and tryptophan. Principal component analysis revealed variation between cells from different passages and harvesting methods, as indicated by the formation of clusters in score plot. Analysis of S-plots revealed metabolites that acted as biomarkers in discriminating cells from different passages including acetate, serine, lactate and choline. Meanwhile lactate, glutamine and pyruvate served as biomarkers for differentiating trypsinized and scraped cells. In passage-dependent effects, glycolysis and TCA cycle were influential, whereas glycerophospholipid metabolism was affected by the harvesting method. Overall, it is proposed that typsinized RAW cells from lower passage numbers are more appropriate when conducting experiments related to NMR metabolomics.
  18. Lee MJ, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM, Tan SC
    Anal Biochem, 2020 06 15;599:113733.
    PMID: 32302607 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2020.113733
    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of mitragynine, other closely related Kratom alkaloids and metabolites was developed using polyclonal antibodies. Mitragynine was conjugated to a carrier protein, cationized-bovine serum albumin using Mannich reaction. The synthesized antigen was injected into rabbits to elicit specific polyclonal antibodies against mitragynine. An enzyme conjugate was synthesized for evaluating its performance with the antibodies produced. The assay had an IC50 of 7.3 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 15 ng/mL for mitragynine. Antibody produced have high affinity for mitragynine (100%), other closely related Kratom alkaloids such as paynantheine (54%), speciociliatine (63%), 7α-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine (83%) and cross-reacted with metabolites 9-O-demethyl mitragynine (79%), 16-carboxy mitragynine (103%), 9-O-demethyl mitragynine sulfate (263%), 9-O-demethyl mitragynine glucuronide (60%), 16-carboxy mitragynine glucuronide (60%), 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy mitragynine sulfate (270%) and 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro mitragynine glucuronide (34%). It showed cross-reactivity less than 0.01% to reserpine, codeine, morphine, caffeine, methadone, amphetamine, and cocaine. Ten-fold dilution urine was used in the assay to reduce the matrix effects. The recovery ranged from 83% to 112% with variation coefficients in intraday and interday less than 8% and 6%, respectively. The ELISA turned out to be a convenient tool to diagnose mitragynine, other closely related Kratom alkaloids and metabolites in human urine samples.
  19. Awaludin N, Abdullah J, Salam F, Ramachandran K, Yusof NA, Wasoh H
    Anal Biochem, 2020 12 01;610:113876.
    PMID: 32750357 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2020.113876
    The identification of rice bacterial leaf blight disease requires a simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative approach that can be applied as an early detection monitoring tool in rice health. This paper highlights the development of a turn-off fluorescence-based immunoassay for the early detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a gram-negative bacterium that causes rice bacterial leaf blight disease. Antibodies against Xoo bacterial cells were produced as specific bio-recognition molecules and the conjugation of these antibodies with graphene quantum dots and gold nanoparticles was performed and characterized, respectively. The combination of both these bio-probes as a fluorescent donor and metal quencher led to changes in the fluorescence signal. The immunoreaction between AntiXoo-GQDs, Xoo cells, and AntiXoo-AuNPs in the immuno-aggregation complex led to the energy transfer in the turn-off fluorescence-based quenching system. The change in fluorescence intensity was proportional to the logarithm of Xoo cells in the range of 100-105 CFU mL-1. The limit of detection was achieved at 22 CFU mL-1 and the specificity test against other plant disease pathogens showed high specificity towards Xoo. The detection of Xoo in real plant samples was also performed in this study and demonstrated satisfactory results.
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