PURPOSE: Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were the most common agents associated with a significant morbidity and mortality rate. The main objective of this study was to examine the publication pattern related to CCBs poisoning at the global level using bibliometric analysis of articles published in SciVerse Scopus online database.
METHODS: Data were searched for documents that contained specific words regarding CCB poisoning as keywords in the title. No time period limitations were specified in the search regarding the starting year. The ending date of the search was 31 December 2012.
RESULTS: The criteria were met by 713 publications from 53 countries. The largest number of articles associated with CCBs was from the United States (30%), followed by the United Kingdom (7.4%), Japan (6%), and Germany (5.6%). No data related to CCBs were published from 159 (75%) of 212 countries registered in World Bank online database. There was no correlation between the number of published articles in the country and its population size (r = 0.03, p > 0.926). United Kingdom and Australia were the leading countries in terms of number of CCBs publications per million inhabitants (0.83 and 0.82 articles per million inhabitants, respectively), followed by the United States (0.68). Countries with a large population, such as India, tended to rank relatively low (0.01 articles per million inhabitants). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (23 October 2014) was 6462, with an average of 9.1 citations per document. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (8-18) for the United States, followed by 6 (1-21) for Australia, 5 (1-15) for the United Kingdom, and 5 (1-24) for Canada. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 37.
CONCLUSIONS: Scientific production on CCBs poisoning is increasing; nonetheless, the international collaboration is still rare. The amount of CCBs-based research activity was low or not available in most countries. More regional epidemiological studies are required to bridge the gap in CCBs-based research and to promote better evaluation of CCBs poisoning worldwide.
KEYWORDS: Bibliometric; Scopus; calcium channel blockers; citations; drug overdose; poisoning; toxicity
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) chemotherapy leads to ovarian failure and infertility. Tocotrienol (T3) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The role of T3 in ovarian protection throughout chemotherapy remains unclear.
PURPOSE: There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of scientific research productivity in paracetamol poisoning from the world. The purposes of this study were to analyse the worldwide research output related to paracetamol poisoning and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade.
METHODS: Data were searched for documents with specific words regarding paracetamol poisoning as 'keywords' in the title or/and abstract. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
RESULTS: There were 1721 publications that met the criteria during study period from the world. All retrieved documents were published from 72 countries. The largest number of articles related to paracetamol poisoning was from the United States (US; 30.39%), followed by India (10.75%) and the United Kingdom (UK; 9.36%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis was 21,109, with an average of 12.3 citations per each documents and median (interquartile range) of 4 (1-14). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 57. After adjusting for economy and population power, India (124.2), Nigeria (18.6) and the US (10.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the UK, Australia, Japan, China and France, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment for GDP over the entire study period.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates evidence that research productivity related to paracetamol poisoning has increased rapidly during the recent years. The US obviously dominated in research productivity. However, certain smaller country such as Nigeria has high scientific output relative to their population size and GDP. A highly noticeable increase in the contributions of Asia-Pacific and Middle East regions to scientific literature related to paracetamol poisoning was also observed.
KEYWORDS: Bibliometric; Scopus; acetaminophen; citations; paracetamol; poisoning
Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induces tissue necrosis as a result of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and oxidative damage that leads to high incidence of renal carcinomas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of diallyl sulphide (DAS) against Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 30 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each: (1) control, (2) DAS (200 mg kg(-1)), (3) Fe-NTA (9 g Fe kg(-1)), (4) DAS (100 mg kg(-1)) + Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe kg(-1)) and (5) DAS (200 mg kg(-1)) + Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe kg(-1)). Fe-NTA + DAS-treated groups were given DAS for a period of 1 week before Fe-NTA administration. The intraperitoneal administration of Fe-NTA enhanced blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels with reduction in levels of antioxidant enzymes. However, significant restoration of depleted renal glutathione and its dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase) was observed in DAS pretreated groups. DAS also attenuated Fe-NTA-induced increase in LPO, hydrogen peroxide generation and protein carbonyl formation (p < 0.05). The results indicate that DAS may be beneficial in ameliorating the Fe-NTA-induced renal oxidative damage in rats.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-mediated hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Rats were administrated with C. citratus extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days before the challenge of CCl(4) (1.2 ml/kg b.w. p.o) on 13th and 14th days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by employing serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase-ALT, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and lactate dehydrogenase-LDH), malondialdehye (MDA) level, reduced GSH and antioxidant enzymes (catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPX, quinone reductase: QR, glutathione S-transferase: GST, glutathione reductase: GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase: G6PD). In addition, CCl(4)-mediated hepatic damage was further evaluated by histopathological examination. However, most of these changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment of animals with C. citratus dose dependently (p < 0.05). The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in liver. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of C. citratus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.
The availability of antidotes may be considered essential and lifesaving in the management of certain poisonings. Surveys carried out in a number of countries have demonstrated inadequate availability of a variety of poisoning antidotes.
Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly encountered medications in self-poisoning, with a high rate of morbidity. The prevalence and characteristics of acetaminophen intoxication associated with long hospital stay in patients are not well defined.
Stilbenes possess a variety of biological activities including chemopreventive activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the structural activity relationships of six methoxylated stilbene analogues with respect to their cytotoxic effects and antioxidant activities on HepG2 hepatoma and Chang liver cells. The cytotoxic and total antioxidant activities of six stilbene analogues were determined by MTT and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays, respectively. We found that the cis-methoxylated stilbene: (Z)-3,4,4'-trimethoxystilbene was the most potent and selective antiproliferative agent (IC₅₀ 89 µM) in HepG2 cells. For the total antioxidant activity, compounds possessing hydroxyl groups at the 4' position namely (E)-3-methoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene, (E)-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (pterostilbene), (E)-4-methoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene showed the highest antioxidant activity. Structure activity relationship studies of these compounds demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect and antioxidant activities of the tested compounds in this study were structurally dependent.
Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is widely recognized as the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose. However, its use is not without adverse drug reactions (ADR) that might affect therapeutic outcome or lead to treatment delay.
We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in adults. Some 55.1% of all admissions were female, mostly involving pharmaceutical agents. Male poisoning admissions were more often due to chemical substances. The prevalence of poisoning and death was highest among Indians compared to all other races in Malaysia. Overall, the majority of poisoning admissions were due to pharmaceutical agents, with agents classified as non-opioid analgesics, anti-pyretics and anti-rheumatics the most common. Pesticides accounted for the largest number of fatalities. It was also the commonest substance reported in cases of intentional self-harm. Most cases of poisoning admissions occurred due to accidental exposure (47%), followed by cases of intentional self-harm (20.7%). Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Malaysia, highlighting important issues, such as the rampant poisonings involving pesticides and analgesics, as well as the high prevalence of poisoning among Indians in Malaysia.
Data on adult risk factors associated with drug or chemical poisonings in Malaysia are scarce. The objective of the study was to identify possible risk factors associated with adult admissions to the Penang General Hospital (PGH) due to chemical poisoning and/or drug overdose. The present study was a case-control study, conducted over 18 weeks. One hundred acutely poisoned adult patients admitted to PGH during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were considered as cases. Two hundred patients admitted to the same medical wards for other illnesses, during the same period, were matched for age and gender with the poisoned cases and thus selected as controls. McNemar test and binary logistic were used for univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analyses. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for each predictor variable. Positive histories of psychiatric illness and previous poisoning, problems in boy/girl friend relationships, family problems, marital problems, Indian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity, living in rented houses and living in a household with less than five people were significant risk factors associated with adult admissions due to poisoning.
Itraconazole and fluconazole are oral antifungal drugs, which have a wide spectrum antifungal activity and better efficacy than the older drugs. However, both drugs have been associated with hepatotoxicity in susceptible patients. The mechanism of antifungal drug-induced hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to investigate and compare the hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs in vivo. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with itraconazole or fluconazole either single (0, 10, 100 and 200 mg/kg) or subchronic (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day for 14 days) doses. Plasma and liver samples were taken at the end of the study. A statistically significant and dose dependent increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were detected in the subchronic itraconazole-treated group. In addition, dose-dependent hepatocellular necrosis, degeneration of periacinar and mizonal hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis and giant cell granuloma were observed histologically in the same group. Interestingly, fluconazole treated rats had no significant increase in transaminases for both single and subchronic groups. In the subchronic fluconazole treated rats, only mild degenerative changes of centrilobular hepatocytes were observed. These results demonstrated that itraconazole was a more potent hepatotoxicant than fluconazole in vivo in rats.
In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks.
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to examine the publication pattern of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) research output for paracetamol overdose at the global level.
METHODS: Data were searched for documents that contained specific words regarding NAC and paracetamol as keywords in the title and/or abstract and/or keywords. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product per capita.
RESULTS: The criteria were met by 367 publications from 33 countries. The highest number of articles associated with the use of NAC in paracetamol overdose was from the United States of America (USA; 39.78%), followed by the United Kingdom (UK; 11.99%). After adjusting for economy and population power, USA (2.822), Iran (1.784) and UK (1.125) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (14 March 2014) was 8785 with an average of 23.9 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 6 (1-22). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 48. The highest h-index was 32 for USA, followed by 20 for UK. Furthermore, the highest number of collaborations with international authors for each country was held by USA with 11 countries, followed by Canada with 7 countries.
CONCLUSION: The amount of NAC-based research activity was low in some countries, and more effort is needed to bridge this gap and to promote better evaluation of NAC use worldwide. Our findings demonstrate that NAC use for paracetamol overdose remains a hot issue in scientific research and may have a larger audience compared with other toxicological aspects. Editors and authors in the field of toxicology might usefully promote the submission of work on NAC in future to improve their journal's impact.
KEYWORDS: Bibliometric; NAC; Scopus; acetaminophen; acetylcysteine; citations; paracetamol; poisoning
This study investigated the main target sites of chlorpyrifos (CPF), its effect on biochemical indices, and the pathological changes observed in rat liver and kidney function using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Adult female Wistar rats (n = 12) were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one test group; n = 6 each). The test group received CPF via oral gavage for 21 days at 5 mg/kg daily. The distribution of CPF was determined in various organs (liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, ovary, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle), urine and stool samples using GCMS. Approximately 6.18% of CPF was distributed in the body tissues, and the highest CPF concentration (3.80%) was found in adipose tissue. CPF also accumulated in the liver (0.29%), brain (0.22%), kidney (0.10%), and ovary (0.03%). Approximately 83.60% of CPF was detected in the urine. CPF exposure resulted in a significant increase in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels, a significant reduction in total protein levels and an altered lipid profile. Oxidative stress due to CPF administration was also evidenced by a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde levels. The detrimental effects of CPF on kidney function consisted of a significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels. Liver and kidney histology confirmed the observed biochemical changes. In conclusion, CPF bioaccumulates over time and exerts toxic effects on animals.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of diallylsulphide (DAS) against mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative stress in rat livers. Rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each and exposed to HgCl2 (50 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.)) intraperitoneally and/or DAS (200 mg/kg/b.w.) by gavage. HgCl2 administration enhanced alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p < 0.05) with reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). However, treatment with DAS markedly attenuated HgCl2-induced biochemical alterations in liver and serum transaminases (AST and ALT; p < 0.05). Further, biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological changes as compared to HgCl2-intoxicated rats. Histopathology of liver also showed that administration of DAS significantly reduced the damage generated by HgCl2 The present study suggests that DAS shows antioxidant activity and plays a protective role against mercury-induced oxidative damage in the rat livers.
The present study was aimed to study protective effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a phenolic antioxidant used in foods on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced nephrotoxicity. Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-6 weeks old) weighing 125-150 g were used in this study. Animals were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight) after treatment with BHA (1 and 2 mg animal(-1) day(-1)). Fe-NTA treatment enhanced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity to 5.3-fold, and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in DNA to 2.5-fold in kidney compared with the corresponding saline-treated control, whereas glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2- to 2.5-fold in kidney. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving a pretreatment of BHA. The enhanced ODC activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 2.12-fold and 1.15-fold, respectively, at a higher dose of 2 mg BHA day(-1) animal(-1), compared with the Fe-NTA-treated groups. Pretreatment with BHA prior to Fe-NTA treatment increased GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes to a range of 1.5- to 2-fold in kidney. The results indicate that BHA suppresses Fe-NTA-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats.
Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p < 0.001) in animals receiving a pretreatment of DAS. DAS protected against hepatic lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide generation, preserved GSH levels, and GSH metabolizing enzymes to 60-80% as compared to Fe-NTA alone-treated group. Present data suggest that DAS can ameliorate the toxic effects of Fe-NTA and suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats.