Two juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs), pyriproxyfen and S-methoprene, were impregnated into dried tuna fish and fed to colonies of Monomorium pharaonis (L.) at very low concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 microg/ml). Its effects on the production of sexuals and colonial growth were observed. Colonies treated with pyriproxyfen yielded sexuals with physical abnormalities. Both female and male sexuals developed bulbous wings, decreased melanization, and died shortly after emergence. Sexuals emerged from colonies treated with S-methoprene did not possess anomalous characteristics. Both pyriproxyfen and S-methoprene did not have significant effects on colonial growth because of the low concentrations of the baits. A commercial bait containing 0.3% S-methoprene (Bioprene-BM) also was evaluated for its efficacy on Pharaoh's ant colonies. Results showed that Pharaoh's ant colonies succumbed to the lethal effects of S-methoprene. Colony members were reduced significantly. Production of queens also decreased significantly in treated colonies and treated queens were unable to lay eggs. JHAs are slow acting and eliminate ant colonies at a relatively slow rate. At low concentrations, pyriproxyfen recorded baffling results, i.e., bulbous wings and demelanized exoskeleton, and it is vital that further studies are initiated to solidify these findings.
Ants are social insects with some significant roles in the ecosystem, including acting as predators for various insect pests. Myopopone castanea ants is a predatorfor the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros pest. The existence of a similar niche of life between M. castanea ants and O. rhinoceros larvae opens an excellent opportunity to utilize these ants as biological agents. The research was conducted to study some aspects biology of M. castanea so that later it can be applied to mass rearing of natural enemies in the laboratory. The study was conducted by maintaining 50 eggs of M. castanea ant. Then, the eggs placed on two pieces of decayed palm oil stem together with twenty individual worker ants and ten individual end instar larvae. It needs five replications for the experiment. The results showed that egg stadia length was 13.8 days. It found five instars within M. castanea ant larvae with varying lengths of each stage. It takes 17.2 days for worker ant pupae to go through stadia pupa and 17.9 days for female ant pupae. The survival rate of M. castanea ant life from eggs until imago is 56.4%, which means that from several groups of eggs laid by queen ants, only about half have succeeded in becoming ant imago.
This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia.