The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of biomaterials; Hydroxyapatite (HA), Natural coral (NC) and Polyhydroxybutarate (PHB). Three different materials used in this study; HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), NC (CaCO3) and PHB (Polymer) were locally produced by the groups of researcher from Universiti Sains Malaysia. The materials were separately extracted in the complete culture medium (100mg/ml) for 72h and introduced to the osteoblast cells CRL-1543. The viability of osteoblast CRL-1543 cultivated with these extraction materials after 72h incubation period was compared to negative control with neutral red assay by using spectrophotometer at 540nm. The results showed the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. After 72h of incubation period, HA showed 123% viable cells, NC was 99.43% and PHB was 176.75%. In this study, cytotoxicity test dealt mainly with the substances that leached out from the biomaterial. The results obtained showed that the materials were not toxic and also promoted cells growth in the sense of biofunctionality.
Mutagenicity of CORAGRAF (natural coral) and REKAGRAF (hydroxyapatite) was tested in Ames test with and without an external metabolic activation system (S9). The test revealed no mutagenic activity of both locally produced osseous substitutes.