In Malaysia and China, the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis is used by local communities and traditional medicine practitioners as a general tonic and remedy to treat a variety of ailments, including inflammation-associated disorders. In this study, 10 samples from different preparations of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium, including a hot aqueous extract (HAE), an ethanol extract (EE), fractions from the HAE and EE, and crude polysaccharides, were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--stimulated BV2 microglia. Of the 10 samples tested, HAE was the least cytotoxic toward BV2 microglia, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 176.23 ± 2.64 mg/mL at 24 hours of incubation and 20.01 ± 1.69 mg/ mL at 48 hours of incubation. The inhibition of NO production was explored by pretreatment of BV2 microglia with samples at 2 incubation time points (4 and 24 hours) before the stimulation by LPS for 24 hours. After 24 hours of pretreatment, 8 of the 10 samples inhibited NO production by 50% or more, and cytotoxic effects were not observed. Among the 8 active samples, 500 µg/mL of HAE, 250 µg/mL of an n-butanol fraction of the HAE, and 250 µg/mL of an ethyl acetate fraction of HAE showed maximum inhibition of NO production by 88.95%, 86.50%, and 85.93%, respectively. These results suggest that the L. rhinocerotis sclerotium may contain secondary metabolites that have the potential to inhibit NO production.
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacities of extracts from Pleurotus pulmonarius via Folin-Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Extract compositions were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid; Coomassie Plus (Bradford) protein; Spectroquant zinc, copper, and manganese test assays; and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methanol-dichloromethane extract, water fraction, hot water, aqueous extract and hexane fraction exhibited the most potent extracts in the antioxidant activities. LC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed that the extracts contained ergothioneine, ergosterol, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. The selected potent extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic injury in human aortic endothelial cells. The crude aqueous extract was deemed most potent for the prevention of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial membrane damage. Ergothioneine might be the compound responsible for the activities, as supported by previous reports. Thus, P. pulmonarius may be a valuable antioxidant ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.