Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Konala VB, Mamidi MK, Bhonde R, Das AK, Pochampally R, Pal R
    Cytotherapy, 2016 Jan;18(1):13-24.
    PMID: 26631828 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2015.10.008
    The unique properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to self-renew and their multipotentiality have rendered them attractive to researchers and clinicians. In addition to the differentiation potential, the broad repertoire of secreted trophic factors (cytokines) exhibiting diverse functions such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory activity, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic, commonly referred to as the MSC secretome, has gained immense attention in the past few years. There is enough evidence to show that the one important pathway by which MSCs participate in tissue repair and regeneration is through its secretome. Concurrently, a large body of MSC research has focused on characterization of the MSC secretome; this includes both soluble factors and factors released in extracellular vesicles, for example, exosomes and microvesicles. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the MSC secretome with respect to their potential clinical applications.
  2. Mirzamohammadi S, Aali E, Najafi R, Kamarul T, Mehrabani M, Aminzadeh A, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2015 Jan;17(1):46-57.
    PMID: 25457279 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.06.009
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown great promise for cell therapy of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes. However, insufficient viability of transplanted cells reaching to damaged tissues has limited their potential therapeutic effects. Expression of estrogen receptors on stem cells may suggest a role for 17β-estradiol (E2) in regulating some functions in these cells. There is evidence that E2 enhances homing of stem cells. Induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by E2 and the profound effect of HIF-1α on migration of cells have previously been demonstrated. We investigated the effect of E2 on major mediators involved in trafficking and subsequent homing of MSCs both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic rats.
  3. Xian LJ, Chowdhury SR, Bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Cytotherapy, 2015 Mar;17(3):293-300.
    PMID: 25456581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.10.005
    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found to contain a high concentration of growth factors that are present during the process of healing. Studies conducted found that application of PRP accelerates wound healing. In this study, we characterized the skin cell suspension harvested using the co-isolation technique and evaluated the effects of PRP (10% and 20%, v/v) on co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in terms of wound healing.
  4. Ataollahi F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Moradi A, Wan Abas WA, Chua KH, Abu Osman NA
    Cytotherapy, 2014 Aug;16(8):1145-52.
    PMID: 24831838 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.01.010
    Numerous protocols for the isolation of bovine aortic endothelial cells have been described in the previous literature. However, these protocols prevent researchers from obtaining the pure population of endothelial cells. Thus, this study aimed to develop a new and economical method for the isolation of pure endothelial cells by introducing a new strategy to the enzymatic digestion method proposed by previous researchers.
  5. Chua KH, Zaman Wan Safwani WK, Hamid AA, Shuhup SK, Mohd Haflah NH, Mohd Yahaya NH
    Cytotherapy, 2014 May;16(5):599-611.
    PMID: 24290076 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.08.013
    The use of retropatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (RFMSCs) for cell-based therapy, particularly for cartilage repair, has been reported by several investigators in recent years. However, the effects of the donor's age and medical condition on the characteristics of RFMSCs have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether age and medical condition can reduce the multipotential of stem cells isolated from the retropatellar fat pad.
  6. Hadzir SN, Ibrahim SN, Abdul Wahab RM, Zainol Abidin IZ, Senafi S, Ariffin ZZ, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2014 May;16(5):674-82.
    PMID: 24176546 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.07.013
    Suspension mononuclear cells (MNCs) can be differentiated into osteoblasts with the induction of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of suspension MNCs to differentiate into osteoblasts using ascorbic acid only.
  7. Fatimah SS, Chua K, Tan GC, Azmi TI, Tan AE, Abdul Rahman H
    Cytotherapy, 2013 Aug;15(8):1030-41.
    PMID: 23830235 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.05.003
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of air-liquid interface on the differentiation potential of human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) to skin-like substitute in organotypic culture.
  8. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Dey S, Bin Abdullah BJ, Zakaria Z, Rao MS, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2012 Sep;14(8):902-16.
    PMID: 22731756 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2012.693156
    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a syndrome manifested by ischemic rest pain, non-healing ulcers and tissue loss. CLI patients are at very high risk of amputation and experience poor physical function, leading to severe morbidity and mortality. The fundamental goal for CLI treatment is to relieve ischemic rest pain, heal ulcers, prevent limb loss and improve the quality of life, thereby extending the survival of the patient. Surgical or endovascular revascularization aimed at increasing blood flow is currently available for limb salvage in CLI. However, up to 30% of CLI patients are not suitable for such interventions because of high operative risk or unfavorable vascular anatomy. Therefore exploring new and more effective strategies for revascularization of ischemic limbs is imperative for the establishment of a viable therapeutic alternative. With the emergence of new approaches, this review describes up-to-date progress and developments in cell-based therapy as a novel and promising alternative for CLI treatment. Preliminary clinical data have established the safety, feasibility and efficacy of stem cells, and numerous studies are underway to consolidate this evidence further. However, significant hurdles remain to be addressed before this research can be responsibly translated to the bedside. In particular, we need better understanding of the behavior of cells post-transplantation and to learn how to control their survival and migration proliferation/differentiation in the hostile pathologic environment. Future research should focus on methods of isolation, optimal dosage, appropriate cell type, route of administration, role of tissue-derived factors and supportive endogenous stimulation.
  9. Salehinejad P, Alitheen NB, Nematollahi-Mahani SN, Ali AM, Omar AR, Janzamin E, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2012 Sep;14(8):948-53.
    PMID: 22587592 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2012.684377
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been isolated from a number of different tissues, including umbilical cord. Because of the lack of a uniform approach to human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cell expansion, we attempted to identify the optimum conditions for the production of a high quantity of hUCM cells by comparing two media.

    METHODS: We compared the ability of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) and Alpha Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) with Glutamax (GL) (α-MEM/GL) to expand hUCM cells. For this purpose, hUCM cells were cultured in plates containing different culture media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Culture dishes were left undisturbed for 10-14 days to allow propagation of the newly formed hUCM cells. The expansion properties, CD marker expression, differentiation potential, population doubling time (PDT) and cell activity were compared between the two groups.

    RESULTS: The hUCM cells harvested from each group were positive for MSC markers, including CD44, CD90 and CD105, while they were negative for the hematopoietic cell surface marker CD34. Differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was confirmed for both treatments. Cell activity was higher in the α-MEM/GL group than the DMEM/F12 group. PDT was calculated to be 60 h for the DMEM/F12 group, while for the α-MEM/GL group it was 47 h.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that α-MEM/GL with 10% FBS supports hUCM cell growth more strongly than DMEM/F12 with 10% FBS.

  10. Chin SP, Poey AC, Wong CY, Chang SK, Tan CS, Ng MT, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2011 Aug;13(7):814-21.
    PMID: 21526902 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2011.574118
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) may improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction. MSC can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells while exerting additional paracrine effects. There is limited information regarding the efficacy of route for MSC treatment of severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical safety, feasibility and efficacy of direct intramyocardial and intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow-derived MSC treatment for no-option patients with chronic severe refractory DCM.

    METHODS: Ten symptomatic patients with DCM and refractory cardiac function, despite maximum medical therapy, were selected. Five had ischemic DCM deemed unlikely to benefit from revascularization alone and underwent bypass operations with concurrent intramyocardial MSC injection (group A). Two patients had previous revascularization and three had non-ischemic DCM and received intracoronary MSC injection (group B).

    RESULTS: Group A and B patients received 0.5-1.0 × 10(6) and 2.0-3.0 × 10(6) MSC/kg body weight, respectively. All patients remained alive at 1 year. There were significant improvements from baseline to 6 and 12 months in left ventricular ejection fraction and other left ventricular parameters. Scar reduction was noted in six patients by 12 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Autologous bone marrow MSC treatment is safe and feasible for treating chronic severe refractory DCM effectively, via intracoronary or direct intramyocardial administration at prescribed doses.

  11. Govindasamy V, Ronald VS, Abdullah AN, Ganesan Nathan KR, Aziz ZA, Abdullah M, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2011 Nov;13(10):1221-33.
    PMID: 21929379 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2011.602337
    BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.
  12. Fariha MM, Chua KH, Tan GC, Tan AE, Hayati AR
    Cytotherapy, 2011 May;13(5):582-93.
    PMID: 21231803 DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2010.549121
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Fetal membrane from human placenta tissue has been described as a potential source of stem cells. Despite abundant literature on amnion stem cells, there are limited studies on the stem cell properties of chorion-derived stem cells.

    METHODS: The main aim was to determine the stemness properties of serial-passaged human chorion-derived stem cells (hCDSC). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to reveal the following stemness gene expression in serial-passaged hCDSC: Oct-4, Sox-2, FGF-4, Rex-1, TERT, Nanog (3), Nestin, FZD-9, ABCG-2 and BST-1. Cell growth rate was evaluated from passage (P) 1 until P5. The colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency of P3 and P5 cells and multilineage differentiation potential of P5 cells were determined. The immunophenotype of hCDSC was compared using the surface markers CD9, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD117, HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ. Immunostaining for trophoblast markers was done on P0, P1, P3 and P5 cells to detect the contamination of trophoblasts in culture, while chromosomal abnormality was screened by cytogenetic analysis of P5 cells.

    RESULTS: The surface markers for mesenchymal lineage in hCDSC were more highly expressed at P5 compared with P3 and P0, indicating the increased purity of these stem cells after serial passage. Indeed, all the stemness genes except TERT were expressed at P1, P3 and P5 hCDSC. Furthermore, human chorion contained high clonogenic precursors with a 1:30 CFU-F frequency. Successful adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation demonstrated the multilineage potential of hCDSC. The karyotyping analysis showed hCDSC maintained chromosomal stability after serial passage.

    CONCLUSIONS: hCDSC retain multipotent potential even at later passages, hence are a promising source for cell therapy in the future.

  13. Chin SP, Poey AC, Wong CY, Chang SK, Teh W, Mohr TJ, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2010;12(1):31-7.
    PMID: 19878080 DOI: 10.3109/14653240903313966
    Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) represent a novel therapy for severe heart failure with extensive myocardial scarring, especially when performed concurrently with conventional revascularization. However, stem cells are difficult to transport in culture media without risk of contamination, infection and reduced viability. We tested the feasibility and safety of off-site MSC culture and expansion with freeze-controlled cryopreservation and subsequent rapid thawing of cells immediately prior to implantation to treat severe dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy.
  14. Mok PL, Cheong SK, Leong CF, Othman A
    Cytotherapy, 2008;10(2):116-24.
    PMID: 18368590 DOI: 10.1080/14653240701816996
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are pluripotent progenitor cells that can be found in human bone marrow (BM). These cells have low immunogenicity and could suppress alloreactive T-cell responses. In the current study, MSC were tested for their capacity to carry and deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in vitro.
  15. Choong PF, Mok PL, Cheong SK, Leong CF, Then KY
    Cytotherapy, 2007;9(2):170-83.
    PMID: 17453969
    The multipotency of stromal cells has been studied extensively. It has been reported that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are capable of differentiating into cells of multilineage. Different methods and reagents have been used to induce the differentiation of MSC. We investigated the efficacy of different growth factors in inducing MSC differentiation into neurons.
  16. Choong PF, Mok PL, Cheong SK, Then KY
    Cytotherapy, 2007;9(3):252-8.
    PMID: 17464757
    The unique potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated much research interest recently, particularly in exploring the regenerative nature of these cells. Previously, MSC were thought to be found only in the BM. However, further studies have shown that MSC can also be isolated from umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue and amniotic fluid. In this study, we explored the possibility of MSC residing in the cornea.
  17. Law ZK, Tan HJ, Chin SP, Wong CY, Wan Yahya WNN, Muda AS, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2021 Sep;23(9):833-840.
    PMID: 33992536 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2021.03.005
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are characterized by paracrine and immunomodulatory functions capable of changing the microenvironment of damaged brain tissue toward a more regenerative and less inflammatory milieu. The authors conducted a phase 2, single-center, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) in patients with subacute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct.

    METHODS: Patients aged 30-75 years who had severe ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of 10-35) involving the MCA territory were recruited within 2 months of stroke onset. Using permuted block randomization, patients were assigned to receive 2 million BMMSCs per kilogram of body weight (treatment group) or standard medical care (control group). The primary outcomes were the NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Barthel Index (BI) and total infarct volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12 months. All outcome assessments were performed by blinded assessors. Per protocol, analyses were performed for between-group comparisons.

    RESULTS: Seventeen patients were recruited. Nine were assigned to the treatment group, and eight were controls. All patients were severely disabled following their MCA infarct (median mRS = 4.0 [4.0-5.0], BI = 5.0 [5.0-25.0], NIHSS = 16.0 [11.5-21.0]). The baseline infarct volume on the MRI was larger in the treatment group (median, 71.7 [30.5-101.7] mL versus 26.7 [12.9-75.3] mL, P = 0.10). There were no between-group differences in median NIHSS score (7.0 versus 6.0, P = 0.96), mRS (2.0 versus 3.0, P = 0.38) or BI (95.0 versus 67.5, P = 0.33) at 12 months. At 12 months, there was significant improvement in absolute change in median infarct volume, but not in total infarct volume, from baseline in the treatment group (P = 0.027). No treatment-related adverse effects occurred in the BMMSC group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of BMMSCs in patients with subacute MCA infarct was safe and well tolerated. Although there was no neurological recovery or functional outcome improvement at 12 months, there was improvement in absolute change in median infarct volume in the treatment group. Larger, well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this and the efficacy of BMMSCs in ischemic stroke.

  18. Vellasamy S, Tong CK, Azhar NA, Kodiappan R, Chan SC, Veerakumarasivam A, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2016 10;18(10):1270-83.
    PMID: 27543068 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.06.017
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified as pan-immunosuppressant in various in vitro and in vivo inflammatory models. Although the immunosuppressive activity of MSCs has been explored in various contexts, the precise molecular signaling pathways that govern inhibitory functions remain poorly elucidated.

    METHODS: By using a microarray-based global gene expression profiling system, this study aimed to decipher the underlying molecular pathways that may mediate the immunosuppressive activity of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on activated T cells.

    RESULTS: In the presence of UC-MSCs, the proliferation of activated T cells was suppressed in a dose-depended manner by cell-to-cell contact mode via an active cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The microarray analysis revealed that particularly, IFNG, CXCL9, IL2, IL2RA and CCND3 genes were down-regulated, whereas IL11, VSIG4, GFA1, TIMP3 and BBC3 genes were up-regulated by UC-MSCs. The dysregulated gene clusters associated with immune-response-related ontologies, namely, lymphocyte proliferation or activation, apoptosis and cell cycle, were further analyzed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among the nine canonical pathways identified, three pathways (namely T-helper cell differentiation, cyclins and cell cycle regulation, and gap/tight junction signalling pathways) were highly enriched with these dysregulated genes. The pathways represent putative molecular pathways through which UC-MSCs elicit immunosuppressive activity toward activated T cells. This study provides a global snapshot of gene networks and pathways that contribute to the ability of UC-MSCs to suppress activated T cells.

  19. Lim J, Razi ZR, Law J, Nawi AM, Idrus RB, Ng MH
    Cytotherapy, 2016 12;18(12):1493-1502.
    PMID: 27727016 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.08.003
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied. In this study, hWJMSCs derived from three anatomical segments of the UC are compared.

    METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.

    RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.

    CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.

  20. Loh EYX, Goh PS, Mannan AMM, Mohd Sani N, Ab Ghani A
    Cytotherapy, 2021 12;23(12):1108-1113.
    PMID: 34362651 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2021.06.006
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) are anticipated to bring many benefits for the treatment of conditions with limited or no satisfactory treatment options. However, they are associated with concerns of potential safety risks because of their high complexity. The National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency (NPRA) of Malaysia took the first step toward the regulation of CGTPs by publishing the Malaysian Guidance Document and Guidelines for CGTPs in 2016. As mandatory registration and enforcement of CGTPs were scheduled to begin January 1, 2021, the aim of this study was to ascertain the industry's readiness for the regulation of CGTPs in terms of awareness of the guidelines, challenges and acceptance of the regulatory requirements.

    METHODS: The authors invited 48 CGTP companies to participate in the survey between October 2019 and June 2020, and 30 companies responded.

    RESULTS: The majority of respondents were aware of the mandatory CGTP regulatory control and the availability of the guidelines. Many CGTPs were in the early development phase, and the most difficult registration barriers were dossier preparation and compliance with the pre-clinical and clinical requirements.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the current CGTP landscape in Malaysia from the industry's viewpoint, enabling the NPRA to implement initiatives to facilitate registration and enforcement.

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