METHODS: We compared the ability of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) and Alpha Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) with Glutamax (GL) (α-MEM/GL) to expand hUCM cells. For this purpose, hUCM cells were cultured in plates containing different culture media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Culture dishes were left undisturbed for 10-14 days to allow propagation of the newly formed hUCM cells. The expansion properties, CD marker expression, differentiation potential, population doubling time (PDT) and cell activity were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: The hUCM cells harvested from each group were positive for MSC markers, including CD44, CD90 and CD105, while they were negative for the hematopoietic cell surface marker CD34. Differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was confirmed for both treatments. Cell activity was higher in the α-MEM/GL group than the DMEM/F12 group. PDT was calculated to be 60 h for the DMEM/F12 group, while for the α-MEM/GL group it was 47 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that α-MEM/GL with 10% FBS supports hUCM cell growth more strongly than DMEM/F12 with 10% FBS.
METHODS: Ten symptomatic patients with DCM and refractory cardiac function, despite maximum medical therapy, were selected. Five had ischemic DCM deemed unlikely to benefit from revascularization alone and underwent bypass operations with concurrent intramyocardial MSC injection (group A). Two patients had previous revascularization and three had non-ischemic DCM and received intracoronary MSC injection (group B).
RESULTS: Group A and B patients received 0.5-1.0 × 10(6) and 2.0-3.0 × 10(6) MSC/kg body weight, respectively. All patients remained alive at 1 year. There were significant improvements from baseline to 6 and 12 months in left ventricular ejection fraction and other left ventricular parameters. Scar reduction was noted in six patients by 12 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Autologous bone marrow MSC treatment is safe and feasible for treating chronic severe refractory DCM effectively, via intracoronary or direct intramyocardial administration at prescribed doses.
METHODS: The main aim was to determine the stemness properties of serial-passaged human chorion-derived stem cells (hCDSC). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to reveal the following stemness gene expression in serial-passaged hCDSC: Oct-4, Sox-2, FGF-4, Rex-1, TERT, Nanog (3), Nestin, FZD-9, ABCG-2 and BST-1. Cell growth rate was evaluated from passage (P) 1 until P5. The colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency of P3 and P5 cells and multilineage differentiation potential of P5 cells were determined. The immunophenotype of hCDSC was compared using the surface markers CD9, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD117, HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ. Immunostaining for trophoblast markers was done on P0, P1, P3 and P5 cells to detect the contamination of trophoblasts in culture, while chromosomal abnormality was screened by cytogenetic analysis of P5 cells.
RESULTS: The surface markers for mesenchymal lineage in hCDSC were more highly expressed at P5 compared with P3 and P0, indicating the increased purity of these stem cells after serial passage. Indeed, all the stemness genes except TERT were expressed at P1, P3 and P5 hCDSC. Furthermore, human chorion contained high clonogenic precursors with a 1:30 CFU-F frequency. Successful adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation demonstrated the multilineage potential of hCDSC. The karyotyping analysis showed hCDSC maintained chromosomal stability after serial passage.
CONCLUSIONS: hCDSC retain multipotent potential even at later passages, hence are a promising source for cell therapy in the future.
METHODS: By using a microarray-based global gene expression profiling system, this study aimed to decipher the underlying molecular pathways that may mediate the immunosuppressive activity of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on activated T cells.
RESULTS: In the presence of UC-MSCs, the proliferation of activated T cells was suppressed in a dose-depended manner by cell-to-cell contact mode via an active cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The microarray analysis revealed that particularly, IFNG, CXCL9, IL2, IL2RA and CCND3 genes were down-regulated, whereas IL11, VSIG4, GFA1, TIMP3 and BBC3 genes were up-regulated by UC-MSCs. The dysregulated gene clusters associated with immune-response-related ontologies, namely, lymphocyte proliferation or activation, apoptosis and cell cycle, were further analyzed.
CONCLUSIONS: Among the nine canonical pathways identified, three pathways (namely T-helper cell differentiation, cyclins and cell cycle regulation, and gap/tight junction signalling pathways) were highly enriched with these dysregulated genes. The pathways represent putative molecular pathways through which UC-MSCs elicit immunosuppressive activity toward activated T cells. This study provides a global snapshot of gene networks and pathways that contribute to the ability of UC-MSCs to suppress activated T cells.
METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.
RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.
CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.
METHODS: Patients aged 30-75 years who had severe ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of 10-35) involving the MCA territory were recruited within 2 months of stroke onset. Using permuted block randomization, patients were assigned to receive 2 million BMMSCs per kilogram of body weight (treatment group) or standard medical care (control group). The primary outcomes were the NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Barthel Index (BI) and total infarct volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12 months. All outcome assessments were performed by blinded assessors. Per protocol, analyses were performed for between-group comparisons.
RESULTS: Seventeen patients were recruited. Nine were assigned to the treatment group, and eight were controls. All patients were severely disabled following their MCA infarct (median mRS = 4.0 [4.0-5.0], BI = 5.0 [5.0-25.0], NIHSS = 16.0 [11.5-21.0]). The baseline infarct volume on the MRI was larger in the treatment group (median, 71.7 [30.5-101.7] mL versus 26.7 [12.9-75.3] mL, P = 0.10). There were no between-group differences in median NIHSS score (7.0 versus 6.0, P = 0.96), mRS (2.0 versus 3.0, P = 0.38) or BI (95.0 versus 67.5, P = 0.33) at 12 months. At 12 months, there was significant improvement in absolute change in median infarct volume, but not in total infarct volume, from baseline in the treatment group (P = 0.027). No treatment-related adverse effects occurred in the BMMSC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of BMMSCs in patients with subacute MCA infarct was safe and well tolerated. Although there was no neurological recovery or functional outcome improvement at 12 months, there was improvement in absolute change in median infarct volume in the treatment group. Larger, well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this and the efficacy of BMMSCs in ischemic stroke.