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  1. Freeman MA, Yokoyama H, Osada A, Yoshida T, Yamanobe A, Ogawa K
    J. Fish Dis., 2011 Jun;34(6):445-52.
    PMID: 21545438 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2011.01255.x
    Anglerfish from the genus Lophius are a globally important commercial fishery. The microsporidian Spraguea infects the nervous system of these fish resulting in the formation of large, visible parasitic xenomas. Lophius litulon from Japan were investigated to evaluate the intensity and distribution of Spraguea xenomas throughout the nervous system and to assess pathogenicity to the host and possible transmission routes of the parasite. Spraguea infections in L. litulon had a high prevalence; all fish over 403 mm in standard length being infected, with larger fish usually more heavily infected than smaller fish. Seventy percent of all fish examined had some gross visible sign of infection. The initial site of development is the supramedullary cells on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata, where all infected fish have parasitic xenomas. As the disease progresses, a number of secondary sites typically become infected such as the spinal, trigeminal and vagus nerves. Fish with infection in the vagus nerve bundles often have simultaneous sites of infection, in particular the spinal nerves and along the ventral nerve towards the urinary bladder. Advanced vagus nerve infections sometimes form xenomas adjacent to kidney tissue. Spraguea DNA was amplified from the contents of the urinary bladders of two fish, suggesting that microsporidian spores may be excreted in the urine. We conclude that supramedullary cells on the hindbrain are the primary site of infection, which is probably initiated at the cutaneous mucous glands where supramedullary cells are known to extend their peripheral axons. The prevalence of Spraguea infections in L. litulon was very high, and infections often extremely heavy; however, no associated pathogenicity was observed, and heavily infected fish were otherwise normal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology
  2. Kuan CS, Cham CY, Singh G, Yew SM, Tan YC, Chong PS, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161008.
    PMID: 27570972 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161008
    Cladophialophora bantiana is a dematiaceous fungus with a predilection for causing central nervous system (CNS) infection manifesting as brain abscess in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In this paper, we report comprehensive genomic analyses of C. bantiana isolated from the brain abscess of an immunocompetent man, the first reported case in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The identity of the fungus was determined using combined morphological analysis and multilocus phylogeny. The draft genome sequence of a neurotrophic fungus, C. bantiana UM 956 was generated using Illumina sequencing technology to dissect its genetic fundamental and basic biology. The assembled 37.1 Mb genome encodes 12,155 putative coding genes, of which, 1.01% are predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features support its saprophytic lifestyle, renowned for its versatility in decomposing hemicellulose and pectin components. The C. bantiana UM 956 was also found to carry some important putative genes that engaged in pathogenicity, iron uptake and homeostasis as well as adaptation to various stresses to enable the organism to survive in hostile microenvironment. This wealth of resource will further catalyse more downstream functional studies to provide better understanding on how this fungus can be a successful and persistent pathogen in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology
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