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  1. Morano JP, Zelenev A, Walton MR, Bruce RD, Altice FL
    Am J Public Health, 2014 Aug;104(8):1508-15.
    PMID: 24922157 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301897
    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of a mobile medical clinic (MMC) screening program for detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis.
    METHODS: A LTBI screening program in a MMC in New Haven, Connecticut, used medical surveys to examine risk factors and tuberculin skin test (TST) screening eligibility. We assessed clinically relevant correlates of total (prevalent; n = 4650) and newly diagnosed (incident; n = 4159) LTBI from 2003 to 2011.
    RESULTS: Among 8322 individuals, 4159 (55.6%) met TST screening eligibility criteria, of which 1325 (31.9%) had TST assessed. Similar to LTBI prevalence (16.8%; 779 of 4650), newly diagnosed LTBI (25.6%; 339 of 1325) was independently correlated with being foreign-born (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.54, 13.02), Hispanic (AOR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.88, 5.20), Black (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.31, 3.55), employed (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.28), and of increased age (AOR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.05). Unstable housing (AOR = 4.95; 95% CI = 3.43, 7.14) and marijuana use (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.37) were significantly correlated with incident LTBI, and being male, heroin use, interpersonal violence, employment, not having health insurance, and not completing high school were significantly correlated with prevalent LTBI.
    CONCLUSIONS: Screening for TST in MMCs successfully identifies high-risk foreign-born, Hispanic, working, and uninsured populations and innovatively identifies LTBI in urban settings.
    Study site: Mobile clinic, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    Matched MeSH terms: Connecticut/epidemiology
  2. Gibson BA, Ghosh D, Morano JP, Altice FL
    Health Place, 2014 Jul;28:153-66.
    PMID: 24853039 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.04.008
    We mapped mobile medical clinic (MMC) clients for spatial distribution of their self-reported locations and travel behaviors to better understand health-seeking and utilization patterns of medically vulnerable populations in Connecticut. Contrary to distance decay literature, we found that a small but significant proportion of clients was traveling substantial distances to receive repeat care at the MMC. Of 8404 total clients, 90.2% lived within 5 miles of a MMC site, yet mean utilization was highest (5.3 visits per client) among those living 11-20 miles of MMCs, primarily for those with substance use disorders. Of clients making >20 visits, 15.0% traveled >10 miles, suggesting that a significant minority of clients traveled to MMC sites because of their need-specific healthcare services, which are not only free but available at an acceptable and accommodating environment. The findings of this study contribute to the important research on healthcare utilization among vulnerable population by focusing on broader dimensions of accessibility in a setting where both mobile and fixed healthcare services coexist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Connecticut/epidemiology
  3. Loeliger KB, Altice FL, Ciarleglio MM, Rich KM, Chandra DK, Gallagher C, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2018 11;5(11):e617-e628.
    PMID: 30197101 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30175-9
    BACKGROUND: People transitioning from prisons or jails have high mortality, but data are scarce for people with HIV and no studies have integrated data from both criminal justice and community settings. We aimed to assess all-cause mortality in people with HIV released from an integrated system of prisons and jails in Connecticut, USA.

    METHODS: We linked pharmacy, custodial, death, case management, and HIV surveillance data from Connecticut Departments of Correction and Public Health to create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut between 2007 and 2014. We compared the mortality rate of adults with HIV released from incarceration with the general US and Connecticut populations, and modelled time-to-death from any cause after prison release with Cox proportional hazard models.

    FINDINGS: We identified 1350 people with HIV who were released after 24 h or more of incarceration between 2007 and 2014, of whom 184 (14%) died after index release; median age was 45 years (IQR 39-50) and median follow-up was 5·2 years (IQR 3·0-6·7) after index release. The crude mortality rate for people with HIV released from incarceration was 2868 deaths per 100 000 person-years, and the standardised mortality ratio showed that mortality was higher for this cohort than the general US population (6·97, 95% CI 5·96-7·97) and population of Connecticut (8·47, 7·25-9·69). Primary cause of death was reported for 170 individuals; the most common causes were HIV/AIDS (78 [46%]), drug overdose (26 [15%]), liver disease (17 [10%]), cardiovascular disease (16 [9%]), and accidental injury or suicide (13 [8%]). Black race (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·52, 95% CI 0·34-0·80), having health insurance (0·09, 0·05-0·17), being re-incarcerated at least once for 365 days or longer (0·41, 0·22-0·76), and having a high percentage of re-incarcerations in which antiretroviral therapy was prescribed (0·08, 0·03-0·21) were protective against mortality. Positive predictors of time-to-death were age (≥50 years; adjusted HR 3·65, 95% CI 1·21-11·08), lower CD4 count (200-499 cells per μL, 2·54, 1·50-4·31; <200 cells per μL, 3·44, 1·90-6·20), a high number of comorbidities (1·86, 95% CI 1·23-2·82), virological failure (2·76, 1·94-3·92), and unmonitored viral load (2·13, 1·09-4·18).

    INTERPRETATION: To reduce mortality after release from incarceration in people with HIV, resources are needed to identify and treat HIV, in addition to medical comorbidities, psychiatric disorders, and substance use disorders, during and following incarceration. Policies that reduce incarceration and support integrated systems of care between prisons and communities could have a substantial effect on the survival of people with HIV.

    FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Connecticut
  4. Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Wu J, Trestman RL, Altice FL, Springer SA
    JAMA Intern Med, 2014 May;174(5):721-9.
    PMID: 24687044 DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.601
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Connecticut
  5. Loeliger KB, Meyer JP, Desai MM, Ciarleglio MM, Gallagher C, Altice FL
    PLoS Med., 2018 10;15(10):e1002667.
    PMID: 30300351 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002667
    BACKGROUND: Sustained retention in HIV care (RIC) and viral suppression (VS) are central to US national HIV prevention strategies, but have not been comprehensively assessed in criminal justice (CJ) populations with known health disparities. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of RIC and VS following release from prison or jail.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult people living with HIV (PLWH) incarcerated in Connecticut, US, during the period January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011, and observed through December 31, 2014 (n = 1,094). Most cohort participants were unmarried (83.7%) men (77.0%) who were black or Hispanic (78.1%) and acquired HIV from injection drug use (72.6%). Prison-based pharmacy and custody databases were linked with community HIV surveillance monitoring and case management databases. Post-release RIC declined steadily over 3 years of follow-up (67.2% retained for year 1, 51.3% retained for years 1-2, and 42.5% retained for years 1-3). Compared with individuals who were not re-incarcerated, individuals who were re-incarcerated were more likely to meet RIC criteria (48% versus 34%; p < 0.001) but less likely to have VS (72% versus 81%; p = 0.048). Using multivariable logistic regression models (individual-level analysis for 1,001 individuals after excluding 93 deaths), both sustained RIC and VS at 3 years post-release were independently associated with older age (RIC: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.22-2.12; VS: AOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.78), having health insurance (RIC: AOR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.60-2.89; VS: AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.53-2.64), and receiving an increased number of transitional case management visits. The same factors were significant when we assessed RIC and VS outcomes in each 6-month period using generalized estimating equations (for 1,094 individuals contributing 6,227 6-month periods prior to death or censoring). Additionally, receipt of antiretroviral therapy during incarceration (RIC: AOR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.65; VS: AOR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.56-2.34), early linkage to care post-release (RIC: AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 2.03-3.43; VS: AOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.45-2.21), and absolute time and proportion of follow-up time spent re-incarcerated were highly correlated with better treatment outcomes. Limited data were available on changes over time in injection drug use or other substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, or housing status.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of CJ-involved PLWH with a 3-year post-release evaluation, RIC diminished significantly over time, but was associated with HIV care during incarceration, health insurance, case management services, and early linkage to care post-release. While re-incarceration and conditional release provide opportunities to engage in care, reducing recidivism and supporting community-based RIC efforts are key to improving longitudinal treatment outcomes among CJ-involved PLWH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Connecticut
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