Displaying all 12 publications

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  1. Ramachandran H, Iqbal NM, Sipaut CS, Abdullah AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Jul;164(6):867-77.
    PMID: 21302147 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9180-8
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer was produced using Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 via one-step cultivation process through combination of various carbon sources such as 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone with either 1-pentanol, valeric acid, or 1-propanol. Oleic acid was added to increase the biomass production. The composition of 3HV and 4HB monomers were greatly affected by the concentration of 1,4-butanediol and 1-pentanol. Terpolymers with 3HV and 4HB molar fractions ranging from 2 to 41 mol.% and 5 to 31 mol.%, respectively, were produced by varying the concentration of carbon precursors. The thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymers containing different proportions of the constituent monomers were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), DSC, and tensile machine. GPC analysis showed that the molecular weights (M (w)) of the terpolymer produced were within the range of 346 to 1,710 kDa. The monomer compositions of 3HV and 4HB were also found to have great influences on the thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymer P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  2. Salim YS, Abdullah AA, Nasri CS, Ibrahim MN
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Feb;102(3):3626-8.
    PMID: 21115240 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.020
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-38 mol%-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38mol%-3HV)] was produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 in the presence of oleic acid and 1-pentanol. Due to enormous production of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the oil palm plantation and high production cost of P(3HB-co-3HV), oil palm EFB fibers were used for biocomposites preparation. In this study, maleic anhydride (MA) and benzoyl peroxide (DBPO) were used to improve the miscibility between P(3HB-co-3HV) and EFB fibers. Introduction of MA into P(3HB-co-3HV) backbone reduced the molecular weight and improved the thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV). Thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB composites was shown to be comparable to that of commercial packaging product. Composites with 35% EFB fibers content have the highest tensile strength compared to 30% and 40%. P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB blends showed less chemicals leached compared to commercial packaging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  3. Lee WH, Loo CY, Nomura CT, Sudesh K
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Oct;99(15):6844-51.
    PMID: 18325764 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.051
    The combination of plant oils and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) precursors were evaluated for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers containing 3HV monomers by Cupriavidus necator H16. Among various mixtures of plant oils and 3HV-precursors, the mixture of palm kernel oil and sodium propionate was suitable for the biosynthesis of high concentration of PHA (6.8gL(-1)) containing 7mol% of 3HV. The 3HV monomer composition can be regulated in the range of 0-23mol% by changing culture parameters such as the initial pH, and the nitrogen source and its concentration. PHA copolymers with high weight-average molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 1,400,000 to 3,100,000Da were successfully produced from mixtures of plant oils and 3HV-precursors. The mixture of plant oils and sodium propionate resulted in PHA copolymers with higher M(w) compared to the mixture of plant oils and sodium valerate. DSC analysis on the PHA containing 3HV monomers showed the presence of two distinct melting temperature (Tm), which indicated that the PHA synthesized might be a blend of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV). Sodium propionate appears to be the better precursor of 3HV than sodium valerate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism
  4. Muzaiyanah AR, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Jul;170(5):1194-215.
    PMID: 23649305 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0247-6
    In this study, the ability of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) containing 4-hydroxyvalerate monomer (4HV) was studied through one-stage cultivation using γ-valerolactone as the carbon precursor. The presence of 4HV monomer unit in the polymer was detected through gas chromatography analysis, proving the capability of this wild strain bacterium to produce poly(3-hydrxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HV)] terpolymer. Existence of a 4HV monomer unit in the PHA produced was further confirmed through (13)C and (1)H NMR analysis. P(3HB-co-88 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV) terpolymer with the highest PHA content of 63 wt% was obtained through combination of 0.14 wt% C of γ-valerolactone with 0.42 wt% C of oleic acid. Various compositions of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HV) terpolymer with 3HV and 4HV compositions ranging from 11 to 94 mol% and from 1 to 4 mol%, respectively, were acquired by manipulating γ-valerolactone and oleic acid concentrations. The molecular weight and the thermal and mechanical properties of four different compositions of terpolymers-P(3HB-co-91 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV), P(3HB-co-55 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV), P(3HB-co-27 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV), and P(3HB-co-9 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV)-were characterized. Among these terpolymers, P(3HB-co-27 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV) terpolymer with a molecular weight of 5.7 (10(5) Da) exhibited the highest elongation to break (264 %). The monomer unit compositional distributions of these terpolymers were investigated through acetone-water fractionation analysis. The results suggested that these produced terpolymers had broad 3HV compositional distribution and narrow 4HV compositional distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  5. Huong KH, Azuraini MJ, Aziz NA, Amirul AA
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2017 Jul;124(1):76-83.
    PMID: 28457658 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.02.003
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism
  6. Huong KH, Kannusamy S, Lim SY, Amirul AA
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2015 Sep;42(9):1291-7.
    PMID: 26233315 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-015-1657-y
    Two-stage fermentation was normally employed to achieve a high poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] productivity with higher 4HB molar fraction. Here, we demonstrated single-stage fermentation method which is more industrial feasible by implementing mixed-substrate cultivation strategy. Studies on bioreactor scale show a remarkably high PHA accumulation of 73 wt%, contributing to a high PHA concentration and product yield of 8.6 g/L and 2.7 g/g, respectively. This fermentation strategy has resulted in copolymers with wider range of 4HB monomer composition, which ranges from 12 to 55 mol%. These copolymers show a broad range of weight average molecular weight (M w ) from 119.5 to 407.0 kDa. The copolymer characteristics were found to be predominantly affected by the nature of the substrates and the mixture strategies, regardless of the 4HB monomer compositions. This was supported by the determination of copolymer randomness using (13)C-NMR analysis. The study warrants significantly in the copolymer scale-up and modeling at industrial level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism
  7. Ramachandran H, Iqbal MA, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2014 Sep;174(2):461-70.
    PMID: 25099372 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1080-2
    Microbial pigments are gaining intensive attention due to increasing awareness of the toxicity of synthetic colours. In this study, a novel polymer-producing bacterium designated as Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 was also found to produce yellow pigment when cultivated in nutrient broth. Various parameters such as temperature, pH and ratio of culture volume to flask volume were found to influence the yellow pigment production. UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that the crude yellow pigment might probably represent new bioactive compound in the carotenoid family. The crude yellow pigment also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with their inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 25 to 38 mm and from 0.63 to 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification and characterization of yellow pigment produced by bacterium belonging to the genus Cupriavidus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  8. Huong KH, Teh CH, Amirul AA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Aug;101:983-995.
    PMID: 28373050 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.179
    This study reports the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) [Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)] in possession of high molecular weight and elastomeric properties by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 in single-stage mixed-substrate cultivation system. 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol are found to be efficient substrate mixture that has resulted in high copolymer yield, occupying a maximum of 70wt% of the total biomass and producing higher 4HB monomer composition ranging from 31mol% to 41mol%. In substrate mixtures involving 1,6-hexanediol, cleavage of the 6-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA produces Acetyl-CoA and 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is instrumental in initiating the cell growth in the single-stage fermentation system, preventing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from being utilized via β-oxidation and retained the 4HB monomer at higher ratios. Macroscopic kinetic models of the bioprocesses have revealed that the P(3HB-co-4HB) formation appears to be in the nature of mixed-growth associated with higher formation rate during exponential growth phase; evidenced by higher growth associated constants, α, from 0.0690g/g to 0.4615g/g compared to non-growth associated constants, β, from 0.0092g/g/h to 0.0459g/g/h. The P(3HB-co-31mol% 4HB) produced from the substrate mixture exhibited high weight-average molecular weight, Mwof 927kDa approaching a million Dalton, and possessed elongation at break of 1637% upon cultivation at 0.56wt% C. This is the first report on such properties for the P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer. The copolymer is highly resistant to polymer deformation after being stretched.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  9. Syafiq IM, Huong KH, Shantini K, Vigneswari S, Aziz NA, Amirul AA, et al.
    Enzyme Microb Technol, 2017 Mar;98:1-8.
    PMID: 28110659 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2016.11.011
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is noted for its high biocompatibility, which makes it an excellent candidate for biopharmaceutical applications. The wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 strain is able to synthesize P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers with different 4HB monomer compositions (up to 70mol%) in shaken flask cultures. Combinations of 4HB carbon precursors consisting of 1,6-hexanediol and γ-butyrolactone were applied for the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) with different 4HB molar fraction. A sharp increase in 4HB monomer composition was attained by introducing additional copies of PHA synthase gene (phaC), responsible for P(3HB-co-4HB) polymerization. The phaC of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 and Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 were cloned and heterologously introduced into host, wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020. The gene dosage treatment resulted in the accumulation of 93mol% 4HB by the transformant strains when grown in similar conditions as the wild-type USMAA1020. The PHA synthase activities for both transformants were almost two-fold higher than the wild-type. The ability of the transformants to produce copolymers with high 4HB monomer composition was also tested in large scale production system using 5L and 30L bioreactors with a constant oxygen mass transfer rate. The 4HB monomer composition could be maintained at a range of 83-89mol%. The mechanical and thermal properties of copolymers improved with increasing 4HB monomer composition. The copolymers produced could be tailored for specific biopharmaceutical applications based on their properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  10. Shantini K, Yahya AR, Amirul AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Jul;176(5):1315-34.
    PMID: 25951779 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-015-1648-5
    Copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] has been the center of attention in the bio-industrial fields, as it possesses superior mechanical properties compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. The usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol was exploited as the carbon source for the production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer by using a locally isolated strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4. In this study, the productivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was improved by varying the frequency of feeding in fed-batch culture. The highest productivity (0.48 g/L/h) that represents 200 % increment was obtained by feeding the carbon source and nitrogen source three times and also by considering the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR). A significantly higher P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration of 25.7 g/L and PHA content of 66 wt% were obtained. The 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer composition obtained was 24 mol% with the growth of 13.3 g/L. The different frequency of feeding carried out has produced a blend copolymer and has broadened the monomer distribution. In addition, increase in number of granules was also observed as the frequency of feeding increases. In general, the most glaring increment in productivity offer advantage for industrial P(3HB-co-3HV) production, and it is crucial in developing cost-effective processes for commercialization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  11. Ramachandran H, Shafie NAH, Sudesh K, Azizan MN, Majid MIA, Amirul AA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2018 Mar;111(3):361-372.
    PMID: 29022146 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0958-8
    Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413T, was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic (C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4, respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16 (7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is USMAA1020T (= DSM 19416T = KCTC 32390T).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
  12. Vigneswari S, Vijaya S, Majid MI, Sudesh K, Sipaut CS, Azizan MN, et al.
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Apr;36(4):547-56.
    PMID: 19189144 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-009-0525-z
    Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, a local isolate was able to biosynthesis poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer with various 4HB precursors as the sole carbon source. Manipulation of the culture conditions such as cell concentration, phosphate ratio and culture aeration significantly affected the synthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and 4HB composition. P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer with 4HB compositions ranging from 23 to 75 mol% 4HB with various mechanical and thermal properties were successfully produced by varying the medium aeration. The physical and mechanical properties of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, tensile test, and differential scanning calorimetry. The number-average molecular weights (M (n)) of copolymers ranged from 260 x 10(3) to 590 x 10(3)Da, and the polydispersities (M (w)/M (n)) were between 1.8 and 3.0. Increases in the 4HB composition lowered the molecular weight of these copolymers. In addition, the increase in 4HB composition affected the randomness of copolymer, melting temperature (T (m)), glass transition temperature (T (g)), tensile strength, and elongation to break. Enzymatic degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with an extracellular depolymerase from Ochrobactrum sp. DP5 showed that the degradation rate increased proportionally with time as the 4HB fraction increased from 17 to 50 mol% but were much lower with higher 4HB fraction. Degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum exhibited highest degradation rate at 75 mol% 4HB. The biocompatibility of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were evaluated and these copolymers have been shown to support the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cupriavidus/metabolism*
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