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  1. Yap SC, Choo YM, Hew NF, Yap SF, Khor HT, Ong AS, et al.
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1145-50.
    PMID: 8614305
    The oxidative susceptibilities of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from rabbits fed high-fat atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oil were investigated. New Zealand white rabbits were fed atherogenic semisynthetic diets containing 0.5% cholesterol and either (i) 13% coconut oil and 2% corn oil (CNO), (ii) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO), (iii) 15% crude palm olein (CPO), (iv) 15% soybean oil (SO), or (v) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein without cholesterol supplementation [RBDPO(wc)], for a period of twelve weeks. Total fatty acid compositions of the plasma and LDL were found to be modulated (but not too drastically) by the nature of the dietary fats. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased the plasma level of vitamin E and effectively altered the plasma composition of long-chain fatty acids in favor of increasing oleic acid. Oxidative susceptibilities of LDL samples were determined by Cu2(+)-catalyzed oxidation which provide the lag times and lag-phase slopes. The plasma LDL from all palm oil diets [RBDPO, CPO, and RBDPO(wc)] were shown to be equally resistant to the oxidation, and the LDL from SO-fed rabbits were most susceptible, followed by the LDL from the CNO-fed rabbits. These results reflect a relationship between the oxidative susceptibility of LDL due to a combination of the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet, Atherogenic*
  2. Leow SS, Sekaran SD, Sundram K, Tan Y, Sambanthamurthi R
    Eur J Nutr, 2013 Mar;52(2):443-56.
    PMID: 22527284 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0346-0
    BACKGROUND: Water-soluble phenolics from the oil palm possess significant biological properties.

    PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to discover the role of oil palm phenolics (OPP) in influencing the gene expression changes caused by an atherogenic diet in mice.

    METHODS: We fed mice with either a low-fat normal diet (14.6 % kcal/kcal fat) with distilled water, or a high-fat atherogenic diet (40.5 % kcal/kcal fat) containing cholesterol. The latter group was given either distilled water or OPP. We harvested major organs such as livers, spleens and hearts for microarray gene expression profiling analysis. We determined how OPP changed the gene expression profiles caused by the atherogenic diet. In addition to gene expression studies, we carried out physiological observations, blood hematology as well as clinical biochemistry, cytokine profiling and antioxidant assays on their blood sera.

    RESULTS: Using Illumina microarrays, we found that the atherogenic diet caused oxidative stress, inflammation and increased turnover of metabolites and cells in the liver, spleen and heart. In contrast, OPP showed signs of attenuating these effects. The extract increased unfolded protein response in the liver, attenuated antigen presentation and processing in the spleen and up-regulated antioxidant genes in the heart. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the microarray gene expression fold changes observed. Serum cytokine profiling showed that OPP attenuated inflammation by modulating the Th1/Th2 axis toward the latter. OPP also increased serum antioxidant activity to normal levels.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that OPP may possibly attenuate atherosclerosis and other forms of cardiovascular disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet, Atherogenic*
  3. Bond MG, Bullock BC, Bellinger DA, Hamm TE
    Am. J. Pathol., 1980 Dec;101(3):675-92.
    PMID: 7446712
    Relatively few cases of myocardial infarction associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis have been described previously in macaques. In this study the authors report the prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in 10 rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and two cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques that were fed atherogenic diets for 16 months or longer. Our findings show clearly that myocardial infarction occurs in macaques with diet-induced atherosclerosis. The frequency seems to be related to the species, composition of the atherogenic diet, and length of time fed the atherogenic diet. The myocardial lesions are remarkably similar to those described in human beings in terms of location and gross and microscopic characteristics. The characteristics of coronary artery atherosclerosis, including the occurrence of thrombosis, severe stenosis, mineralization, atheronecrosis, and sterol clefts, especially in animals fed the atherogenic diets for longer periods of time, also closely resemble those of the arterial lesions found in human beings. The greatest prevalence of myocardial infarcts was found in rhesus monkeys fed a cholesterol-containing diet with 40% of calories supplied by peanut oil and in cynomolgus macaques from Malaya that were fed the same amount of cholesterol with 40% of calories from lard. Electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as the occurrence of unexpected and relatively sudden death in several of these nonhuman primates are also consistent with signs frequently observed in human beings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet, Atherogenic
  4. Chan KW, Ismail M, Mohd Esa N, Imam MU, Ooi J, Khong NMH
    Food Funct, 2018 Feb 21;9(2):925-936.
    PMID: 29313544 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo01109a
    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Besides, the levels of hepatic Hmgcr and serum Pcsk9 were lowered, along with transcriptional upregulations of hepatic Cyp7a1, Abca1, Lcat, ApoA2 and ApoE (p < 0.05). The gene expression of hepatic Ldlr was marginally enhanced by DKSM supplementation (p > 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet, Atherogenic/adverse effects
  5. Nafeeza MI, Norzana AG, Jalaluddin HL, Gapor MT
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Jun;23(1):17-25.
    PMID: 16329543
    This study investigated the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TTRF) on the microscopic development of atherosclerosis and lipid peroxidation in the aorta of rabbits. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 received a 2% cholesterol diet and group 3 received a 2% cholesterol diet plus daily oral administration of the TTRF. After 10 weeks, the aortic content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured as an index of lipid peroxidation. The MDA was lowest in rabbits that received the TTRF compared to the groups that did not. The degree of intimal thickening was higher in the cholesterol-fed rabbits without the TTRF compared to the cholesterol-fed rabbits with TTRF (P<0.05). The continuity of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) was noted to be preserved in the cholesterol-fed rabbits with TTRF but appeared disrupted in the cholesterol-fed rabbits without the TTRF. The disrupted and fragmented IEL may have resulted from the injury caused by lipid peroxidation that contributed to the more extensive intimal thickening. We conclude that the antioxidant activities of the TTRF can reduce experimental atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet, Atherogenic
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