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  1. Tan CH, Tan KY
    Methods Mol Biol, 2019;1871:153-158.
    PMID: 30276739 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8814-3_11
    Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is commonly employed as a decomplexing strategy in snake venom proteomics. The chromatographic fractions often contain relatively pure toxins that can be assessed functionally for toxicity level through the determination of their median lethal doses (LD50). Further, antivenom efficacy can be evaluated specifically against these venom fractions to understand the limitation of the antivenom as the treatment for snake envenomation. However, methods of toxicity assessment and antivenom evaluation vary across laboratories; hence there is a need to standardize the protocols and parameters, in particular those related to the neutralizing efficacy of antivenom. This chapter outlines the important in vivo techniques and data interpretation that can be applied in the functional study of snake venom proteomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  2. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P dose-response inhibition studies. Skin prick tests performed on asthmatic children in Thailand also showed differential IgE response to Blo t 5 and Der p 5.

    CONCLUSION: By using a large panel of asthmatic sera and a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays, the major allergen of B tropicalis in tropical and subtropical regions, Blo t 5, exhibits low levels of IgE cross-reactivity with homologous Der p 5. These findings suggest that highly specific clinical reagents are necessary for precise diagnosis and immunotherapeutic treatment of sensitization to group 5 mite allergens.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  3. Rajah T, Chow SC
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2014 Jul 15;278(2):100-6.
    PMID: 24768707 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2014.04.014
    The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-l-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) has recently been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation in primary T cells. We showed in this study that z-VAD-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-mediated T cell proliferation induced by z-VAD-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and l-cysteine, whereas d-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. These results suggest that the depletion of intracellular GSH is the underlying cause of z-VAD-FMK-mediated inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation. The presence of exogenous GSH also attenuated the inhibition of anti-CD3-induced CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-VAD-FMK. However, none of the low molecular weight thiols were able to restore the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK in activated T cells where caspase-8 and caspase-3 remain activated and processed into their respective subunits in the presence of the caspase inhibitor. This suggests that the inhibition of T cell proliferation can be uncoupled from the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK. Taken together, the immunosuppressive effects in primary T cells mediated by z-VAD-FMK are due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  4. Gimeno IM, Cortes AL, Faiz N, Villalobos T, Badillo H, Barbosa T
    Avian Dis., 2016 09;60(3):662-8.
    PMID: 27610727 DOI: 10.1637/11415-040116-Reg.1
    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine for more than 40 yr. Either alone (broiler chickens) or in combination with vaccines of other serotypes (broilers, broiler breeders, and layers), HVT is used worldwide. In recent years, several vector vaccines based on HVT (rHVT) have been developed. At present, there are both conventional HVT and rHVTs in the market, and it is unknown if all of them confer the same level of protection against MD. The objective of this study was to further characterize the protection conferred by two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) and three recombinant HVTs (rHVT-B, rHVT-C, and rHVT-D) against MD in broiler chickens. In a first study we evaluated the efficacy of two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) administered at different doses (475, 1500, and 4000 PFU) at day of age on the ability to protect against an early challenge with very virulent plus strain 645. In a second experiment we evaluated the protection ability of several HVTs (both conventional and recombinant) when administered in ovo at a dose of 1500 PFU using the same challenge model. Our results show that each HVT product is unique, regardless of being conventional or recombinant, in their ability to protect against MD and might require different PFUs to achieve its maximum efficacy. In Experiment 1, HVT-A at 4000 PFU conferred higher protection (protection index [PI] = 63) than any of the other vaccine protocols (PI ranging from 36 to 47). In Experiment 2, significant differences were found among vaccine protocols with PI varying from 66 (HVT-A) to 15 (rHVT-D). Our results show that each HVT is unique and age at vaccination and vaccine dose greatly affected vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, they highlight the need of following manufacturer's recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  5. Wong SL, Soosai P, Teoh YL, Han HH, Lefevre I, Bock HL
    PMID: 18564687
    Malaysian infants would have to receive nine injections during the first few months of life in order to be protected against disease caused by hepatitis B (HBV), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) if single HBV and Hib vaccines were used. We evaluated a combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine administered at 1.5, 3 and 5 months after a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). One month after completion of the primary vaccination, 99% of subjects had seroprotective anti-HBV antibody levels, and at least 98% had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and Hib, and were seropositive for pertussis antibodies. The immune response to the combined vaccine was comparable to that induced by separate injections with DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. Overall, the DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was as well tolerated as separate administration of DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. The combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine induces protection against five diseases as recommended in the Malaysian routine vaccination schedule. Use of the combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine can reduce the required number of injections from nine to four in the first few months of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
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