Displaying all 5 publications

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  1. Jain D, Darrow JJ
    Health Matrix Clevel, 2013;23(2):425-57.
    PMID: 24341078
    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution*
  2. Ping CC, Bahari MB, Hassali MA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2008 Jan;17(1):82-9.
    PMID: 17879323
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generic substitution (GS) practices undertaken by community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia with a focus on the extent of communication between pharmacists and prescribers on issues related to GS, consumer's acceptance on the GS and estimation of cost saving achieved for patients opted for GS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution*
  3. Babar ZD, Izham MI
    Public Health, 2009 Aug;123(8):523-33.
    PMID: 19665741 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.06.011
    Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution
  4. Baker BK
    PLoS Med., 2016 Mar;13(3):e1001970.
    PMID: 26954325 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001970
    Brook Baker describes the potential harms to global health from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement and its failure to balance the interests of patients and the public with those of industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution*
  5. Chua GN, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    Health Policy, 2010 May;95(2-3):229-35.
    PMID: 20044165 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.11.019
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia.
    METHOD: A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%).
    RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine.
    CONCLUSION: Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/supply & distribution
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