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  1. Ismael NN
    Maturitas, 1994 Oct;19(3):205-9.
    PMID: 7799827
    In an attempt to gather data on the menopause in Malaysia, 400 women (13% Chinese, 70% Malays and 16% Indians), representing the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia, were interviewed. The majority (76%) of these women were still married and living with their husbands and 63% of them were working. Most of them (90%) had attained menarche by the age of 15 years and 50% of them had married before the age of 20. Their reproductive record was good, since 76% of them had 3 or more children who were still alive. The mean age at menopause in the Malaysian women studied was 50.7 years. Analysis of the climacteric symptoms reported showed significant differences in the vasomotor and nervosity indices in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Eighty percent (80%) of the women saw no need to consult a doctor about their climacteric symptoms. When they did, most of them (84%) received medication, but 43% of them did not comply with the prescribed treatment. Dyspareunia and urinary incontinence were evidently regarded as embarrassing complaints in all three groups, since around 80% of the women did not seek medical advice. This is not surprising in view of the fact that 89% of them rated their health as good.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
  2. Zahran MH, Fahmy O, El-Hefnawy AS, Ali-El-Dein B
    Climacteric, 2016 Dec;19(6):546-550.
    PMID: 27649461
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of radical cystectomy and urinary diversion on female sexual function.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Medline search was conducted according to the PRISMA statement for all English full-text articles published between 1980 and 2016 and assessing female sexual function post radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Eligible studies were subjected to critical analysis and revision. The primary outcomes were the reporting methods for female sexual dysfunction (FSD), manifestations of FSD, and factors associated with FSD, postoperative recoverability of FSD, and awareness level regarding FSD.

    RESULTS: From the resulting 117 articles, 11 studies were finally included in our systematic review, with a total of 361 women. Loss of sexual desire and orgasm disorders were the most frequently reported (49% and 39%). Dyspareunia and vaginal lubrication disorders were reported in 25% and 9.5%, respectively. The incidence of sexual dysfunction was 10% in 30 patients receiving genital- or nerve-sparing cystectomy vs. 59% receiving conventional cystectomy.

    CONCLUSION: Although female sexual function is an important predictor of health-related quality of life post radical cystectomy and urinary diversion, the available literature is not enough to provide proper information for surgeons and patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
  3. Jiang H, Qian X, Carroli G, Garner P
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 02 08;2:CD000081.
    PMID: 28176333 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000081.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Some clinicians believe that routine episiotomy, a surgical cut of the vagina and perineum, will prevent serious tears during childbirth. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on mother and baby of a policy of selective episiotomy ('only if needed') compared with a policy of routine episiotomy ('part of routine management') for vaginal births.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing selective versus routine use of episiotomy, irrespective of parity, setting or surgical type of episiotomy. We included trials where either unassisted or assisted vaginal births were intended. Quasi-RCTs, trials using a cross-over design or those published in abstract form only were not eligible for inclusion in this review.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third author mediated where there was no clear consensus. We observed good practice for data analysis and interpretation where trialists were review authors. We used fixed-effect models unless heterogeneity precluded this, expressed results as risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

    MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes 12 studies (6177 women), 11 in women in labour for whom a vaginal birth was intended, and one in women where an assisted birth was anticipated. Two were trials each with more than 1000 women (Argentina and the UK), and the rest were smaller (from Canada, Germany, Spain, Ireland, Malaysia, Pakistan, Columbia and Saudi Arabia). Eight trials included primiparous women only, and four trials were in both primiparous and multiparous women. For risk of bias, allocation was adequately concealed and reported in nine trials; sequence generation random and adequately reported in three trials; blinding of outcomes adequate and reported in one trial, blinding of participants and personnel reported in one trial.For women where an unassisted vaginal birth was anticipated, a policy of selective episiotomy may result in 30% fewer women experiencing severe perineal/vaginal trauma (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.94; 5375 women; eight RCTs; low-certainty evidence). We do not know if there is a difference for blood loss at delivery (an average of 27 mL less with selective episiotomy, 95% CI from 75 mL less to 20 mL more; two trials, 336 women, very low-certainty evidence). Both selective and routine episiotomy have little or no effect on infants with Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (four trials, no events; 3908 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and there may be little or no difference in perineal infection (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82, three trials, 1467 participants, low-certainty evidence).For pain, we do not know if selective episiotomy compared with routine results in fewer women with moderate or severe perineal pain (measured on a visual analogue scale) at three days postpartum (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.05, one trial, 165 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference for long-term (six months or more) dyspareunia (RR1.14, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53, three trials, 1107 participants, moderate-certainty evidence); and there may be little or no difference for long-term (six months or more) urinary incontinence (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.44, three trials, 1107 participants, low-certainty evidence). One trial reported genital prolapse at three years postpartum. There was no clear difference between the two groups (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.41; 365 women; one trial, low certainty evidence). Other outcomes relating to long-term effects were not reported (urinary fistula, rectal fistula, and faecal incontinence). Subgroup analyses by parity (primiparae versus multiparae) and by surgical method (midline versus mediolateral episiotomy) did not identify any modifying effects. Pain was not well assessed, and women's preferences were not reported.One trial examined selective episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy in women where an operative vaginal delivery was intended in 175 women, and did not show clear difference on severe perineal trauma between the restrictive and routine use of episiotomy, but the analysis was underpowered.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In women where no instrumental delivery is intended, selective episiotomy policies result in fewer women with severe perineal/vaginal trauma. Other findings, both in the short or long term, provide no clear evidence that selective episiotomy policies results in harm to mother or baby.The review thus demonstrates that believing that routine episiotomy reduces perineal/vaginal trauma is not justified by current evidence. Further research in women where instrumental delivery is intended may help clarify if routine episiotomy is useful in this particular group. These trials should use better, standardised outcome assessment methods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
  4. Boulet MJ, Oddens BJ, Lehert P, Vemer HM, Visser A
    Maturitas, 1994 Oct;19(3):157-76.
    PMID: 7799822
    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
  5. Sidi H, Puteh SE, Abdullah N, Midin M
    J Sex Med, 2007 Mar;4(2):311-21.
    PMID: 17040486
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent sexual health problem that does not spare the women in Malaysia, a nation with a conservative multiethnic society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
  6. Chua Y, Limpaphayom KK, Cheng B, Ho CM, Sumapradja K, Altomare C, et al.
    Climacteric, 2017 Aug;20(4):367-373.
    PMID: 28453308 DOI: 10.1080/13697137.2017.1315091
    OBJECTIVES: The Pan-Asian REVIVE survey aimed to examine women's experiences with genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and their interactions with health-care professionals (HCPs).

    METHODS: Self-completed surveys were administered face-to-face to 5992 women (aged 45-75 years) in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.

    RESULTS: Of 638 postmenopausal women with GSM symptoms, only 35% were aware of the GSM condition, most of whom first heard of GSM through their physician (32%). The most common symptoms were vaginal dryness (57%) and irritation (43%). GSM had the greatest impact on sexual enjoyment (65%) and intimacy (61%). Only 25% had discussed their GSM symptoms with a HCP, and such discussions were mostly patient-initiated (64%) rather than HCP-initiated (24%). Only 21% had been clinically diagnosed with GSM and only 24% had ever used treatment for their symptoms. Three-quarters of those who had used treatment for GSM had discussed their symptoms with a HCP compared to only 9% of those who were treatment-naïve.

    CONCLUSION: GSM is underdiagnosed and undertreated in Asia. As discussion of GSM with HCPs appears to be a factor influencing women's awareness and treatment status, a more active role by HCPs to facilitate early discussions on GSM and its treatment options is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dyspareunia/epidemiology
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