Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 164 in total

  1. Khahro SH, Memon ZA, Yusoff NIM, Gungat L, Yazid MRM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Feb;29(7):10771-10781.
    PMID: 34613546 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16499-2
    Roads play a pivotal role in the overall economic growth of any country. Developed countries allocated sufficient budget to make new roads and to maintain the existing roads. They also have a proper pavement management system (PMS) in practice to manage roads, whereas developing countries suffer from budgetary issues to make new roads and maintain the existing road network. Therefore, this paper explores the awareness of PMS via direct and indirect methods in Pakistan with a proposed framework of the low-cost model and pavement maintenance indicators for developing countries. This paper also performs a scientometric assessment of PMS. A detailed literature review has been carried out for this study, followed by a quantitative study from experienced professionals. The scientometric data is collected from the Scopus database from 1975 to 2020, whereas the data for PMS awareness assessment has been collected using questionnaires from different experts working directly and indirectly in the road management sector. The data has been analyzed using the arithmetic mean because of the nature of the questions and scope of the study. The direct method results show that experts are aware of PMS for a new road, but they have no PMS to rehabilitate roads. The indirect method results show that the authorities are applying various components of PMS, but there is no proper PMS in practice. This paper helps decision-makers to make better decisions and policies for improved road maintenance and rehabilitation. The proposed framework in the study can significantly assist the UN-SDG 9 (Facilitate Sustainable Infrastructure in Developing Countries) and 11 (Affordable and Sustainable Transport System).
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  2. Maji IK, Habibullah MS, Saari MY
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Mar;24(8):7160-7176.
    PMID: 28097481 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-8326-1
    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  3. Godil DI, Sharif A, Rafique S, Jermsittiparsert K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Nov;27(32):40109-40120.
    PMID: 32656759 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-09937-0
    With the growing interest among researchers in analyzing the ecological footprint of any country, this study focuses on new dimensions to analyze the long-run and short-run asymmetric impact of tourism, financial development, and globalization on ecological footprint in Turkey by using Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag model for the period from 1986 to 2018. Further, the EKC hypothesis was also tested. The results show that tourism, globalization, and financial development are positively and significantly associated with the EFP. This means that the increase in these variables will further increase the ecological footprint in Turkey. The U-shaped EKC curve was found to be valid in Turkey. The results also depict nonlinear and asymmetric association among most of the variables. Hence, based on the results, further research directions and practical implications can be suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  4. Ali W, Abdullah A, Azam M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):12723-12739.
    PMID: 28378312 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8888-6
    The current study investigates the dynamic relationship between structural changes, real GDP per capita, energy consumption, trade openness, population density, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions within the EKC framework over a period 1971-2013. The study used the autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) approach to investigate the long-run relationship between the selected variables. The study also employed the dynamic ordinary least squared (DOLS) technique to obtain the robust long-run estimates. Moreover, the causal relationship between the variables is explored using the VECM Granger causality test. Empirical results reveal a negative relationship between structural change and CO2 emissions in the long run. The results indicate a positive relationship between energy consumption, trade openness, and CO2 emissions. The study applied the turning point formula of Itkonen (2012) rather than the conventional formula of the turning point. The empirical estimates of the study do not support the presence of the EKC relationship between income and CO2 emissions. The Granger causality test indicates the presence of long-run bidirectional causality between energy consumption, structural change, and CO2 emissions in the long run. Economic growth, openness to trade, and population density unidirectionally cause CO2 emissions. These results suggest that the government should focus more on information-based services rather than energy-intensive manufacturing activities. The feedback relationship between energy consumption and CO2 emissions suggests that there is an ominous need to refurbish the energy-related policy reforms to ensure the installations of some energy-efficient modern technologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  5. Sulaiman C, Abdul-Rahim AS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Nov;24(32):25204-25220.
    PMID: 28929456 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0092-1
    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  6. Ali S, Yusop Z, Kaliappan SR, Chin L
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Apr;27(11):11671-11682.
    PMID: 31970640 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07768-7
    The study aims to address the dynamic common correlated effects of trade openness, FDI, and institutional performance on environmental quality in OIC countries. Mostly, pollutants like CO2 and SO2 emissions are considered as the environmental indicators. However, for this study, we have selected ecological footprint as the indicator of environmental quality. The new econometric approach Dynamic Common Correlated Effects (DCCE) by Chudik and Pesaran (2015) has been used to measure the cross-sectional dependence among cross-sectional units. Results confirm that previous techniques for long panel data, like MG and PMG, give ambiguous outcomes in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. According to DCCE estimation, trade openness, FDI, and urbanization have a positive and significant relationship with ecological footprint while a significant and negative association is found between institutional performance and ecological footprint. The OIC countries must encourage green technology, clean production, and improved institutions for sustainable development and better environmental quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  7. Solarin SA, Nathaniel SP, Bekun FV, Okunola AM, Alhassan A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Apr;28(14):17942-17959.
    PMID: 33410031 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11637-8
    Studies have shown that factors like trade, urbanization, and economic growth may increase the ecological footprint (EFP) since ecological distortions are mainly human-induced. Therefore, this study explores the effect of economic growth and urbanization on the EFP, accounting for foreign direct investment and trade in Nigeria, using data from 1977 to 2016. This study used the EFP variable as against the CO2 emissions used in the previous studies since the former is a more comprehensive and extensive measure of environmental quality. We apply the novel dynamic autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) simulations for model estimation, the Bayer and Hanck J Time Ser Anal 34: 83-95, (2013) combined cointegration, and the ARDL bounds test for cointegration. Although the results affirmed the presence of long-run relationship among the variables, economic growth deteriorates the environment in the short run, while urbanization exacts no harmful impact. In the long run, FDI and trade deteriorate the environment while economic growth adds to environmental quality. It is recommended that policymakers strengthen the existing environmental regulations to curtail harmful trade and provide rural infrastructures to abate urban anomaly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  8. Raza SA, Qureshi MA, Ahmed M, Qaiser S, Ali R, Ahmed F
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jan;28(2):1426-1442.
    PMID: 32840747 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10179-3
    The study aims to analyze two objectives: first is to explore the non-linear relationship between tourism development, economic growth, urbanization, and environmental degradation, and also to analyze the threshold level of the contribution of tourism development on environmental degradation in top tourist arrival destinations. We applied the newly proposed econometric method panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) framework with two regimes on yearly panel data from 1995 to 2017. Findings suggest that the relationship between tourism development and environmental degradation is non-linear and regime dependent. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the relationship above the threshold level is negative and significant, while below the threshold, tourism development is positive and significant effect on environmental degradation. Tourism development and environmental degradation also exhibit the inverted U-shape relationship meaning that at a particular point, increase in tourism development increases in environmental degradation but after a particular point, increase in tourism development decreases the environmental degradation. The economic growth and urbanization also portray a non-linear and regime-dependent relationship with environmental degradation. The study assists policies and empirical information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  9. Meirun T, Mihardjo LW, Haseeb M, Khan SAR, Jermsittiparsert K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jan;28(4):4184-4194.
    PMID: 32935214 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10760-w
    For an economy to excel in growth, there is usually a trade-off between financial development and environment deterioration. For a country like Singapore, which has shown a radical growth and is known for its population density, it is important to explore the role of green technology innovation in the pursuit of economic excellence with the least possible cost to the environment. By employing the novel bootstrap autoregressive-distributed lag (BARDL) technique using a time series data from 1990 to 2018, the results reported a positive and significant relationship of green technology innovation with economic growth and negative and significant relationship with carbon emissions in both long run and short run. Based on the findings, several managerial implications were discussed, whereas based on the limitations, directions for future researchers are also given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  10. Zhang L, Li Z, Kirikkaleli D, Adebayo TS, Adeshola I, Akinsola GD
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 May;28(20):26030-26044.
    PMID: 33481200 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12430-x
    One of humanity's most significant problems in the twenty-first century revolves around how to balance the mitigation of environmental pollution while achieving sustainable economic development. Despite increased awareness and dedication to climate change, the planet is still seeing a drastic decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions. This study explores the long-run and causal impact of economic growth, financial development, urbanization, and gross capital formation on Malaysia's CO2 emissions based on the STIRPAT framework. The current paper employs recently developed econometric techniques such as Maki co-integration, auto-regressive distribution lag (ARDL), fully modified OLS (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and wavelet coherence and gradual shift causality tests to investigate these interconnections. The advantage of the gradual shift causality test is that it can capture the causality in the presence of a structural break(s). The findings from the Maki co-integration and ARDL bounds tests reveal evidence of cointegration among the variables. The ARDL test reveals that economic growth, gross capital formation, and urbanization exert a positive impact on CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the wavelet coherence test reveals that there is a significant dependency between CO2 emissions and economic growth, gross capital formation, and urbanization. The Toda Yamamoto and Gradual shift causality tests reveal that there is a (a) unidirectional causality from urbanization to CO2 emissions, (b) unidirectional causality from economic growth to CO2 emissions, and (c) unidirectional causality from gross capital formation to CO2 emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  11. Khan SAR, Yu Z, Sharif A, Golpîra H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(36):45675-45687.
    PMID: 32803598 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10410-1
    Considering the importance of green economic growth and environmental sustainability in the discussion, it is crucial to understand its critical contributing factors and to draw results implications for the green policy. This research used the data of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries for a period from 2005 to 2017. It adopted the panel autoregressive distributed lag technique to examine the hypotheses. The findings revealed that environmental sustainability is strongly and positively associated with national scale-level green practices, including renewable energy, regulatory pressure, and eco-friendly policies, and sustainable use of natural resources. Conversely, in our model, the "regulatory pressure" has an insignificant effect on economic growth. A necessary contribution of the present study is that a positive effect of green practices on national scale economic and environmental variables, particularly in the scenario of SAARC member states, can be noticed. At the end of the present study, we have provided policy implications for regulatory authorities and discussed potential areas for future research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  12. Loganathan N, Mursitama TN, Pillai LLK, Khan A, Taha R
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(36):45121-45132.
    PMID: 32776215 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10291-4
    This study attempts to investigate the environment cleanness between the total factor productivity, natural resources and green taxation on Malaysia's clean environment. Using the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, this study employs the bootstrap quantile estimates based on the annual data series covering the period of 1970-2018 to analyse the quantile effect factors affecting environment cleanness in Malaysia. The empirical estimates of this study reject the EKC hypothesis throughout the quantile levels, while the green taxation shows a negative sign which indicated government fiscal policies are reducing carbon emission in the upper quantiles. There is also homogeneity slope equality effect between total factor of productivity and green taxation on carbon emissions in the middle and upper quantile levels, while natural resources are indication heterogeneity effect on all quantile levels. From the policy point of view, if Malaysia wants to get environment cleanness, there is a need for comprehensive policies of total factor of productivity with environment innovation-friendly and technological improvement in all major economic sectors of the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  13. Awan AM, Azam M, Saeed IU, Bakhtyar B
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(36):45405-45418.
    PMID: 32789804 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10445-4
    The broad purpose of this study is to empirically explore the impact of globalization and financial development on environmental pollution by carbon (CO2) emissions in the six Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries using balanced panel data from 1971 to 2015. We also aimed to test the legitimacy of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for this region. The fixed-effects approach preferred by the Hausman specification test is used to estimate the empirical model, and the feasible generalized least squares (F.G.L.S.) estimator is employed to cope with any issue of heteroscedasticity and serial correlation. This study found that globalization and financial development have adverse and significant effects on environmental degradation and affirm the legitimacy of the EKC hypothesis for these countries. The finding of this study suggests that the governments of MENA countries should design and implement appropriate policies for strengthening the renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, bio-fuel, and thermal to decrease CO2 emissions and boost sustainable economic development. The policymakers should focus on the efficiency of institutions and enhancement of energy-saving projects in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  14. Van Song N, Phuong NTM, Oanh TTK, Chien DH, Phuc VQ, Mohsin M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Apr;28(16):19911-19925.
    PMID: 33410000 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-12041-y
    The study tries to discover the impact of financial and social indicators' growth towards environmental considerations to understand the drivers of economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions change in G7 countries. The DEA-like composite index has been used to examine the tradeoff between financial and social indicator matters in environmental consideration by using a multi-objective goal programming approach. The data from 2008 to 2018 is collected from G-7 countries. The results from the DEA-like composite index reveals that there is a mixed condition of environmental sustainability in G-7 countries where the USA is performing better and Japan is performing worse among the set of other countries. The further result shows that the energy and fiscal indicators help to decrease the dangerous gas emissions. Divergent to that, the human and financial index positively contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Fostering sustainable development is essential to successfully reduce emissions, meet established objectives, and ensure steady development. The study provides valuable information for policymakers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  15. Cao J, Law SH, Samad ARBA, Mohamad WNBW, Wang J, Yang X
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Sep;28(35):48053-48069.
    PMID: 33904131 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13828-3
    China's green growth has shown a trend of fluctuation year by year. Simultaneously, Chinese local governments have pursued simple economic growth driven by the interests of "political competition" for a long time, while the supervision of the ecological environment has been loosened and tightened. In this environment, financial development and technological innovation may easily become the accelerator of this phenomenon, thus exacerbating the fluctuation of green growth. To deeply excavate the key factors to achieve stable and sustained growth of green economy, based on the annual panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2011 to 2018, this paper studies the impact of financial development and technological innovation on the volatility of green growth using dynamic system GMM method. The findings of this paper are shown as follows: First, the expansion of financial institutions' scale will significantly enhance the volatility of green growth. Second, the increase in the scale of the stock market will also significantly cause green growth fluctuations. Third, the interaction between financial development and technological innovation can significantly weaken the volatility of green growth. Fourth, financial development measured by stock market indicators is more efficient than financial development measured by financial institutions indicators to curb the volatility of green growth. Fifth, the fluctuation of green growth in the previous period will reduce the volatility of green growth in the current period. This study provides new evidence for exploring the power source to promote the stability and sustainable growth of the green economy in the special stage of financial and technological integration. Controlling the development scale of financial institutions and removing their state preferences, expanding the development of capital markets, and deepening the integration of financial development and technological innovation are conducive to achieve stable green growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  16. Khan MK, Abbas F, Godil DI, Sharif A, Ahmed Z, Anser MK
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Oct;28(39):55579-55591.
    PMID: 34138439 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14686-9
    Without enhancing the quality of the environment, the goals of sustainable development remain unachievable. In order to minimize the damage to the planet, sustainable practices need to be considered. This study is conducted to identify some of the drivers behind the increasing sustainability issues and tried to investigate the impact of natural resources, financial development, and economic growth on the ecological footprint in Malaysia from the year 1980-2019 by utilizing the dynamic simulated autoregressive distribution lag approach. It was identified that financial development, economic growth, and natural resources are the determinants behind the upsurge of the ecological footprint as all three show a positive and significant effect on ecological footprint. However, in the long run, the presence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was also validated in Malaysia. Therefore, it is recommended to increase awareness among the public regarding the adoption of sustainable practices in everyday life and to use green technologies that offer maximum efficiency and minimum damage to the environment in commercial and domestic activities. Finally, based on the research results, a comprehensive policy framework was proposed which could allow the Malaysian economy to attain the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7, 8, and 13.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  17. Ahmad F, Draz MU, Chandio AA, Su L, Ahmad M, Irfan M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Oct;28(39):55344-55361.
    PMID: 34137008 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14641-8
    Since the development of the service sector and renewable energy reduce fossil-based energy consumption which mitigates CO2 emissions and this nexus provides a better understanding of the environmental sustainability. Considering the substantially increasing contribution of service sector and tremendous potential for renewable energy in ASEAN5 countries, leaning forward from ASEAN's energy and growth nexus, this study examines the impact of service sector contribution and renewable energy on the environmental quality of ASEAN5 using annual data from 1990 to 2018. The results of the fully modified ordinary least squared, dynamic ordinary least squared, and canonical co-integrating regressions depicted that the service sectors of Thailand, the Philippines, and Singapore augment CO2 emissions; however, the service sectors of Malaysia and Indonesia could reduce CO2 emissions. The increasing share of renewable energy can enhance environmental quality, but its magnitude varies in ASEAN5 economies; non-renewable energy, population, and economic development deteriorate the environment. Our results confirm the existence of environmental Kuznets curve in all the ASEAN5; the Gregory-Hansen test confirmed that results are robust. Finally, the Granger causality designated that economic development and non-renewable energy have a significant causal relationship with CO2 emission of ASEAN5 countries. These findings suggest that the ASEAN5 economies need to optimize their economic structure for promoting sustainable development in the long run.Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  18. Shakib M, Yumei H, Rauf A, Alam M, Murshed M, Mahmood H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jan;29(3):3808-3825.
    PMID: 34402005 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15860-9
    The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an ambitious development project initiated by the Chinese government to foster economic progress worldwide. In this regard, this study aims to investigate the dynamics of energy, economy, and environment among 42 BRI developing countries using an annual frequency panel dataset from 1995 to 2019. The major findings from the econometric analyses revealed that higher levels of energy consumption, economic growth, population growth rate, and FDI inflows exhibit adverse environmental consequences by boosting the CO2 emission figures of the selected developing BRI member nations. However, it is interesting to observe that exploiting renewable energy sources, which are relatively cleaner compared to the traditionally-consumed fossil fuels, and fostering agricultural sector development can significantly improve environmental well-being by curbing the emission levels further. On the other hand, financial development is found to be ineffective in explaining the variations in the CO2 emission figures of the selected countries. Besides, the causality analysis shows that higher energy consumption, FDI inflows, and agricultural development cause environmental pollution by boosting CO2 emissions. However, economic growth, technology development, financial progress, and renewable energy consumption are evidenced to exhibit bidirectional causal associations with CO2 emissions. In line with these findings, several relevant policies can be recommended for the BRI to be environmentally sustainable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  19. Khan SAR, Yu Z, Umar M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Mar;29(11):16082-16090.
    PMID: 34643866 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16961-1
    In today's era, the world economy needs to move towards a green transformation. Green total factor productivity provides the judgment about a country or region's ability to achieve long-term sustainable development goals. However, many factors considerably affect green total factor productivity that needs to be explored and clarified. This panel study investigates the link between technological input, environmental policies, governmental involvement, manufacturing and logistics industry cooperation, renewable energy consumption, and green total factor productivity in the context of Chinese's manufacturing and logistics industry. Hypotheses are tested through fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) econometric technique. The study used 12 cities data mainly taken from China Urban Statistical Yearbook (2005-2019) and National Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin. The results indicate that technological input, environmental policies, governmental involvement, manufacturing and logistics industry cooperation, and renewable energy consumption are significantly linked to green total factor productivity. The result also implies that the factors mentioned above have a crucial role in the transformation process. Moreover, the current research results will help popularize green total factor productivity and provide a new starting point for reducing non-renewable energy consumption and environmental pollution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
  20. Tang CT, Wilkerson PM, Soon Y
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 04;71(2):57-61.
    PMID: 27326942
    INTRODUCTION: Biomedical research has traditionally been the domain of developed countries. We aim to study the effects of the increased focus on biomedical and medical research on level 1-4 publications in several industrialised and newly industrialised countries endowed with petroleum and gas resources.

    METHODS: We identified all level 1-4 publications from 01/01/1994 to 31/12/2013 via PubMed using advanced options. The population and GDP (current US$) data from 1994-2013 were obtained through data provided by the World Bank and the raw data was normalised based on these two indicators.

    RESULTS: From 1994-2013, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia were responsible for the highest absolute number of level 1 to 4 biomedical and medical research publications with 2551 and 1951 publications respectively. When normalised to population, Kuwait and Qatar had the highest publication rates, with 7.84 and 3.99 publications per 100,000 inhabitants respectively in a five yearly average. Kuwait produced the largest number of publications per billion (current US$) of GDP, at 2.92 publications, followed by Malaysia at 2.82 publications in a five yearly average.

    CONCLUSION: The population size of a country as well as GDP can influence the number of level 1-4 publications in some countries. More importantly, effective government policy which stimulates research as well as a culture which actively promotes research as shown by Malaysia have proven to have a larger influence on the amount of level 1-4 biomedical and medical publications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Economic Development*
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