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  1. Makhsin SR, Razak KA, Noordin R, Zakaria ND, Chun TS
    Nanotechnology, 2012 Dec 14;23(49):495719.
    PMID: 23164811 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/23/49/495719
    This study describes the properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes of 20, 30 and 40 nm, which were synthesized using citrate reduction or seeding-growth methods. Likewise, the conjugation of these AuNPs to mouse anti-human IgG(4) (MαHIgG(4)) was evaluated for an immunochromatographic (ICG) strip test to detect brugian filariasis. The morphology of the AuNPs was studied based on the degree of ellipticity (G) of the transmission electron microscopy images. The AuNPs produced using the seeding-growth method showed lower ellipticity (G ≤ 1.11) as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (G ≤ 1.18). Zetasizer analysis showed that the AuNPs that were synthesized using the seeding-growth method were almost monodispersed with a lower polydispersity index (PDI; PDI≤0.079), as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (PDI≤0.177). UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed a red-shift of the absorbance spectra after the reaction with MαHIgG(4), which indicated that the AuNPs were successfully conjugated. The optimum concentration of the BmR1 recombinant antigen that was immobilized on the surface of the ICG strip on the test line was 1.0 mg ml(-1). When used with the ICG test strip assay and brugian filariasis serum samples, the conjugated AuNPs-MαHIgG(4) synthesized using the seeding-growth method had faster detection times, as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method. The 30 nm AuNPs-MαHIgG(4), with an optical density of 4 from the seeding-growth method, demonstrated the best performance for labelling ICG strips because it displayed the best sensitivity and the highest specificity when tested with serum samples from brugian filariasis patients and controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood*
  2. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, A'shikin AN, Lim BH, Mehdi R, Abdullah B, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1998 Sep 29;250(3):586-8.
    PMID: 9784388
    Western blot analyses were performed on 444 serum specimens: 40 sera from microfilaraemic individuals, 10 sera from elephantiasis patients, 24 treated individuals, 50 sera from residents of endemic areas without anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (endemic normals), 20 sera from amicrofilaraemic individuals with high anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, 200 sera from healthy city-dwellers (non-endemic samples), and 100 sera from soil-transmitted helminth-infected individuals. Phast electrophoresis system was used to electrophorese Brugia malayi soluble adult worm antigen on 10-15% SDS-PAGE gradient gels followed by electrophoretic transfer onto PVDF membranes. Membrane strips were then successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, and monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP, with adequate washings done in between each incubation step. Luminol chemiluminescence detection was then used to develop the blots. An antigenic band with the MW of approximately 37 kDa was found to be consistently present in the Western blots of all microfilaraemic sera, all amicrofilaraemic sera with high titres of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, some treated patients, and some elephantiasis patients. The antigen did not occur in immunoblots of individuals with other helminthic infections, normal endemic individuals, and city dwellers. Therefore the B. malayi antigen of with the MW of approximately 37 kDa demonstrated specific reactions with sera of B. malayi-infected individuals and thus may be useful for diagnostic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  3. Yadav M
    PMID: 2609207
    Serum IgG levels and complement C3 levels were assayed on Day 0, 1, 3-4, 7 and 56-70 post-treatment with diethylcarbamizine citrate (DEC) in a series to 26 patients with Brugia malayi infection and 6 volunteers without infection. On treatment, the microfilariae were cleared from the blood within 24 hours. The eosinophils decreased dramatically on Day 1 post-treatment but increased rapidly by Day 4 to 7 and then dropped to normal levels in 45 days. The serum IgG mean levels decreased briefly following treatment with DEC but then returned to original levels. However, the complement C3 levels gradually increased over the 2 months period of study reaching statistical significance levels (p less than 0.01) in patients with initial high blood microfilariae. The observation suggests that Brugia malayi infection probably induces a high rate of synthesis of complement C3 and this process continued in the post-treatment phase. Since, DEC treatment did not cause a decrease in complement C3 with the elimination of blood microfilariae, it would appear that the complement C3 is consumed following antibody attachment to the microfilariae as they enter the blood circulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  4. Choong MF, Mak JW
    PMID: 1948274
    Hematological changes were monitored in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata, infected experimentally with 200 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae. Prepatent periods were 54-86 days and peak microfilarial geometric mean counts (GMCs) were 1324 per ml blood. Total leukocyte and differential counts were measured at pre-infection, and then at weakly intervals before and during patency. Blood eosinophil level increased to about thrice the initial level at 3 weeks post-infection and this was maintained for the next 13 weeks before it started to rise again, increasing to more than 5 times the initial level at 20 weeks post-infection. The observed pattern of eosinophilia is probably related to the level of microfilaremia and the destruction of microfilariae in the spleen. There was no significant change in the total leukocyte counts during the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood*
  5. Mak JW, Choong MF, Suresh K, Lam PL
    Parasitol Res, 1990;76(8):689-91.
    PMID: 2251244
    Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. All 148 inoculated animals became patent, with mean prepatent periods being between 66 and 76 days. In animals injected in the thigh, the patterns of microfilaraemia were similar, there being a rapid rise in the geometric mean counts (GMCs) of microfilariae during the first 10-12 weeks of patency, which then plateaued at levels of greater than 1000/ml. Adult worm recovery, expressed as the percentage of the infective dose, was significantly higher in animals injected with 100 L3 in each thigh, being 9.4% as compared with 2.8%-4.8% in other groups. It is therefore recommended that animals should be injected with 100 L3 in each thigh and that the testing of potential filaricides in this model be carried out during the phase of rapid increase in microfilaraemia to ensure that any microfilaricidal effect can easily be detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  6. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Karim R, Mehdi R, Sinniah B, Omar AW
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1994 Nov 30;205(1):202-7.
    PMID: 7999024
    Sera from fifty subjects with different presentations of Brugian filariasis and from common soil-transmitted helminth infections were tested for specific anti-filarial IgG and its subclasses. Anti-filarial IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 showed cross-reactivities with soil-transmitted helminthic infections and no significant differences in optical densities among the various groups of filarial patients. In comparison with other groups of subjects, IgG4-ELISA of sera from microfilaraemic patients and some previously microfilaraemic patients showed a significant increase in optical density readings, while IgG2-ELISA showed elevated optical density readings in sera of patients with chronic elephantiasis. Therefore IgG2-ELISA is potentially useful in the diagnosis of brugian chronic elephantiasis while IgG4-ELISA may be beneficial for follow-up diagnosis of treated microfilaraemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  7. Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2017 08 01;111(8):370-372.
    PMID: 29206992 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trx062
    Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated.

    Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens.

    Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar.

    Conclusion: Malaysia is not endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti, but harbors the vectors for the parasite, thus the results showed that migrant workers should be monitored for this infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  8. Rahumatullah A, Lim TS, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):436-440.
    PMID: 31162018 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0034
    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease responsible for morbidity and disability that affects 1.2 billion people worldwide, mainly the poor communities. Currently, filarial antigen testing is the method of choice for the detection of bancroftian filariasis, and to date, there are two commonly used tests. In the present study, a recently reported recombinant monoclonal antibody (5B) specific to BmSXP filarial antigen was used in developing an ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftian filariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 124 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with all sera from microfilaremic bancroftian filariasis patients (n = 34). It also showed 100% diagnostic specificity when tested with sera from 50 healthy individuals and 40 patients with other parasitic diseases. The developed assay using the novel 5B recombinant monoclonal antibody could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftian filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
  9. Cox-Singh J, Pomrehn AS, Rahman HA, Zakaria R, Miller AO, Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1999 May;29(5):717-21.
    PMID: 10404266
    In the absence of a suitable Brugia malayi antigen detection assay, PCR remains one of the more sensitive alternatives to Giemsa-stained thick blood films for B. malayi detection. The need for refrigerated storage and transportation of blood has limited the use of PCR for large-scale epidemiology studies in remote endemic areas. Here we report simple finger-prick blood-spot collection, a one-tube DNA template extraction method and the development of a B. malayi-specific nested PCR assay. The assay was tested on 145 field samples and was positive for all 30 microscopy-positive samples and for an additional 13 samples which were microscopy-negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood
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