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  1. Raja NS
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2007 Feb;40(1):39-44.
    PMID: 17332905
    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with chronic complications. Foot infections are a major complication of diabetes and eventually lead to development of gangrene and lower extremity amputation. The microbiological characteristics of diabetic foot infections have not been extensively studied in Malaysia. This study investigated the microbiology of diabetic foot infections and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with diabetic foot infections treated at University of Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
  2. Modarresi-Chahardehi A, Ibrahim D, Fariza-Sulaiman S, Mousavi L
    Rev. Biol. Trop., 2012 Dec;60(4):1567-76.
    PMID: 23342511
    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to antimicrobial activity extracts from extraction method I (33 out of 152 of crude extracts) and 6.82% from extraction method II (13 out of 190 of crude extracts). However, crude extracts from method I exhibited better antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria. The positive results on medicinal plants screening for antibacterial activity constitutes primary information for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical and food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
  3. Tripathi BM, Kim M, Singh D, Lee-Cruz L, Lai-Hoe A, Ainuddin AN, et al.
    Microb Ecol, 2012 Aug;64(2):474-84.
    PMID: 22395784 DOI: 10.1007/s00248-012-0028-8
    The dominant factors controlling soil bacterial community variation within the tropics are poorly known. We sampled soils across a range of land use types--primary (unlogged) and logged forests and crop and pasture lands in Malaysia. PCR-amplified soil DNA for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene targeting the V1-V3 region was pyrosequenced using the 454 Roche machine. We found that land use in itself has a weak but significant effect on the bacterial community composition. However, bacterial community composition and diversity was strongly correlated with soil properties, especially soil pH, total carbon, and C/N ratio. Soil pH was the best predictor of bacterial community composition and diversity across the various land use types, with the highest diversity close to neutral pH values. In addition, variation in phylogenetic structure of dominant lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Beta/Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) is also significantly correlated with soil pH. Together, these results confirm the importance of soil pH in structuring soil bacterial communities in Southeast Asia. Our results also suggest that unlike the general diversity pattern found for larger organisms, primary tropical forest is no richer in operational taxonomic units of soil bacteria than logged forest, and agricultural land (crop and pasture) is actually richer than primary forest, partly due to selection of more fertile soils that have higher pH for agriculture and the effects of soil liming raising pH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
  4. Zaidan MR, Noor Rain A, Badrul AR, Adlin A, Norazah A, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Dec;22(2):165-70.
    PMID: 16883283 MyJurnal
    Medicinal plants have many traditional claims including the treatment of ailments of infectious origin. In the evaluation of traditional claims, scientific research is important. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibacterial activity in the crude extracts of some of the commonly used medicinal plants in Malaysia, Andrographis paniculata, Vitex negundo, Morinda citrifolia, Piper sarmentosum, and Centella asiatica. In this preliminary investigation, the leaves were used and the crude extracts were subjected to screening against five strains of bacteria species, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, using standard protocol of Disc Diffusion Method (DDM). The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones and MIC values. M. citrifolia, P. sarmentosum and C. asiatica methanol extract and A. paniculata (water extract) have potential antibacterial activities to both gram positive S. aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). None of the five plant extracts tested showed antibacterial activities to gram negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, except for A. paniculata and P. sarmentosum which showed activity towards P. aeruginosa. A. paniculata being the most potent at MIC of 2 g/disc. This finding forms a basis for further studies on screening of local medicinal plant extracts for antibacteria properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
  5. Goh TC, Bajuri MY, C Nadarajah S, Abdul Rashid AH, Baharuddin S, Zamri KS
    J Foot Ankle Res, 2020 Jun 16;13(1):36.
    PMID: 32546270 DOI: 10.1186/s13047-020-00406-y
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot infection is a worldwide health problem is commonly encountered in daily practice. This study was conducted to identify the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of causative agents identified from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). In addition, the assessment included probable risk factors contributing to infection of ulcers that harbour multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and their outcomes.

    METHODS: We carried out a prospective analysis based on the DFI samples collected from 2016 till 2018. Specimens were cultured with optimal techniques in addition to antibiotic susceptibility based on recommendations from The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 1040 pathogens were isolated with an average of 1.9 pathogens per lesion in 550 patients who were identified with having DFIs during this interval.

    RESULTS: A higher percentage of Gram-negative pathogens (54%) were identified as compared with Gram-positive pathogens (33%) or anaerobes (12%). A total of 85% of the patients were found to have polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%), Staphylococcus aureus (11%) and Bacteroides species (8%) appeared to be the predominant organisms isolated. In the management of Gram-positive bacteria, the most efficacious treatment was seen with the use of Vancomycin, while Imipenem and Amikacin proved to be effective in the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria.

    CONCLUSION: DFI's are common among Malaysians with diabetes, with a majority of cases displaying polymicrobial aetiology with multi-drug resistant isolates. The data obtained from this study will be valuable in aiding future empirical treatment guidelines in the treatment of DFIs. This study investigated the microbiology of DFIs and their resistance to antibiotics in patients with DFIs that were managed at a Tertiary Care Centre in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification*
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