A shared experience in Health and Education are essential ingredients of nationhood. In healthcare, it is constructive to think in terms of the characteristics of a healthcare system that a substantial majority of our people would be enthusiastic to claim ownership. It is useful to think in terms of the elements of a 'charter for health for all Malaysians towards 2020' a) Healthcare for all Malaysians, that is equitable, accessible, and comprehensive. b) Care of quality given with courtesy and respect for patients and their families, with no financial barriers at the time of need. c) A commitment to healthcare of a quality that is appropriate to a Malaysia as a developed country by the Year 2020. Each Five-Year Plan should move in that direction, guided by extensive consultation with the community on priorities and preferences. We have to overcome the 'colonial hangover' that still leaves its mark. Health investment is still concentrated in the capital city, Kuala Lumpur, and in other cities. It is a hospital-centred system. The colonial hierarchy persists with its apex in the Capital city. Government servants are separated from other citizens in access to healthcare. Finally, health has low budget priority. However, there is good reason for optimism. A remarkable consensus has emerged between health professionals and government experts on the shape of a future health system for Malaysia. This is a considerable achievement, in contrasts to the bitter divisions that have characterised changes in other countries. There is still a long road ahead, so it is most important that the leaders of the Malaysian community make clear their preferences and priorities. The Ministry of Health speaks of a 'transformation' of the health system, and advises the medical profession to prepare for radical changes in their behaviour, and in the delivery and funding of healthcare. Four strands of change can be discerned. One, all the professions of health will have to provide evidence of competency, and must learn to monitor the quality of service they provide. Second, the great divide between public and private sector will end, and we have to find ways to integrate our services. Third, a Health Financing Authority may be established, providing hope to all Malaysians that their basic health needs will be met. As citizens, we have the duty to ask that there will be no 'privatisation' of the Health Financing Authority, or of the health facilities of the Ministry of Health. There is a fourth change, arising from our entry into the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Foreign investors will demand access to Malaysian markets, under a so-called 'Globalisation'. All professions will be affected. More serious is the danger of commercialised health care that will damage the health of the less well-off in our country, and raise the cost of health for all of us. Health and education are most important concerns for all of us, yet it strange that as citizens we have contributed so little to shaping the sort of health system that we want for our families and for ourselves. I hope that this meeting is a new beginning.
One hundred and twenty specialists from the Ministry of Health, the Universities and the private sector provided information on 4,802 patients seen over a total of two hundred and forty working days. This information was used to classify the patients into four categories based on a disease complexity classification. Each specialist's perception on the appropriateness of utilisation of his expertise was obtained. Complex cases requiring specialist expertise in management made up 69.8%, 73.5% and 19.1% of the cases of the Ministry of Health, University and private sector specialists respectively. Underutilisation was most marked with paediatricians and obstetricians in the private sector. The Specialist Register, the Programme for Accreditation of Hospitals and a National Health Financing Plan can be used to influence positively the case-mix of specialists.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Services/utilization*; Health Services Misuse
Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility*; Mental Health Services*