Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Mahat NA, Yin CL, Jayaprakash PT
    J Forensic Sci, 2014 Mar;59(2):529-32.
    PMID: 24745083
    This study investigated the influence of paraquat, a prevalent poison used by suicides, on initial oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) using minced-beef substrates. Paraquat in lethal dose for human (40 mg/kg), two times the lethal dose (80 mg/kg) and five times the lethal dose (200 mg/kg) were mixed thoroughly with respective minced-beef substrates (1 kg each) that were decomposed in a shaded habitat fully protected from rain. Results of four replications of the above experiment revealed that the presence of paraquat neither delayed initial oviposition nor prolonged the developmental stages of C. megacephala. Therefore, estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on empirical baseline data obtained using animal models devoid of any poisons would still be appropriate for estimating PMI in paraquat-related deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
  2. Cha TS, Anne-Marie K, Chuah TS
    Mol Biol Rep, 2014 Feb;41(2):823-31.
    PMID: 24374894 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-013-2922-7
    Eleusine indica is one of the most common weed species found in agricultural land worldwide. Although herbicide-glyphosate provides good control of the weed, its frequent uses has led to abundant reported cases of resistance. Hence, the development of genetic markers for quick detection of glyphosate-resistance in E. indica population is imperative for the control and management of the weed. In this study, a total of 14 specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified and two of the markers, namely S4R727 and S26R6976 were further sequence characterized. Sequence alignment revealed that marker S4R727 showing a 12-bp nucleotides deletion in resistant biotypes, while marker S26R6976 contained a 167-bp nucleotides insertion in the resistant biotypes. Based on these sequence differences, three pairs of new sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were developed. The specificity of these primer pairs were further validated with genomic DNA extracted from ten individual plants of one glyphosate-susceptible and five glyphosate-resistant (R2, R4, R6, R8 and R11) populations. The resulting RAPD-SCAR markers provided the basis for assessing genetic diversity between glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant E. indica biotypes, as well for the identification of genetic locus link to glyphosate-resistance event in the species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity
  3. Zainuddin NJ, Ashari SE, Salim N, Asib N, Omar D, Lian GEC
    J Oleo Sci, 2019 Aug 01;68(8):747-757.
    PMID: 31292338 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess18209
    The present study revealed the optimization of nanoemulsion containing palm oil derivatives and Parthenium hysterophorus L. crude extract (PHCE) as pre-emergence herbicide formulation against Diodia ocimifolia. The nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by high energy emulsification method, and it was optimized by mixture experimental design (MED). From the optimization process, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a fit quadratic polynomial model with an optimal formulation composition containing 30.91% of palm kernel oil ester (PKOE), 28.48% of mixed surfactants (Tensiofix and Tween 80, 8:2), 28.32% of water and 12.29% of PHCE. The reading of both experimental and predicted particle size in the verification experiment were acceptable with a residual standard error (RSE) was less than 2%. Under the optimal condition, the smallest particle size obtained was 140.10 nm, and the particle was shown by morphology analysis to be spherical and demonstrated good stability (no phase separation) under centrifugation and different storage conditions (25 ± 5°C and 45°C). Nanoemulsion stored for 60 days exhibits monodisperse emulsion with a slight increase of particle size. The increase in particle size over time might have contributed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon which is shown by a linear graph from Ostwald ripening rate analysis. In the in vitro germination test, P. hysterophorus nanoemulsion (PHNE) was shown to cause total inhibition of D. ocimifolia seed at lower concentration (5 g L-1) as compared to PHCE (10 g L-1). The finding of the research could potentially serve as a platform for the development of palm oil based formulation containing plant crude extract for green weed management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
  4. Tang SP, Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam S, Jaafar H, Gan SH, Muzaimi M, Sulaiman SA
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017;2017:4605782.
    PMID: 28127418 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4605782
    Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (p < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
  5. Adam A, Marzuki A, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul Aziz M
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 1997 Jun;39(3):147-51.
    PMID: 9167243
    The toxicities of ROUNDUP and its component chemicals, glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) and polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h following administration to rats. The intratracheal administration of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg), POEA (0.1 g/kg), a mixture of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg) + POEA (0.1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 0.2 g/kg glyphosate and 0.1 g/kg POEA) elicited immediate respiratory effects which were more severe and which lasted longer in the groups receiving the POEA-containing preparations than in the glyphosate alone group. By 1 h, all test preparations had caused deaths, but more occurred from the POEA-containing preparations than from glyphosate. The po administration of POEA (1 g/kg), the mixture of glyphosate (2 g/kg) +POEA (1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 2 g/kg glyphosate and 1 g/kg POEA) produced diarrhea and blood-stained weeping from noses. Death was only seen from POEA at 24 h. Glyphosate (2 g/kg po) produced transient diarrhea without nose bleeds; POEA caused diarrhea at 1 h; and the mixture of POEA + glyphosate produced diarrhea later that increased in severity with time. Bloody nose secretions were seen only with the preparations that contained POEA. No deaths, respiratory effects or bloody nose secretions occurred in controls given saline. Both POEA and glyphosate caused lung hemorrhages and lung epithelial cell damage with po or intratracheal exposures. These results indicate POEA and preparations that contained POEA were more toxic than glyphosate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
  6. D'Souza UJ, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM, Noriah O
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2006 Feb;65(1):6-10.
    PMID: 16783728
    The effects of exposure to low doses of paraquat, a herbicide, via the dermal route were studied on the spermatozoa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was administered once a day for five days, at intervals of 24 h at 0, 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg, and the rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the last exposure. The sperm suspensions were obtained by mincing the caudae epididymes and ductus deferens for the purpose of performing a sperm morphology test, sperm count and analysis of sperm mortality and sperm motility, as per the standard procedures. The sperm count was decreased (p < 0.05) only on days 7 and 14 but sperm abnormalities increased on all days (p < 0.05). Sperm mortality increased at higher dose-levels (p < 0.05) except on day 42, and motility was affected by 30 mg/kg only on day 42. In conclusion, paraquat is a genotoxic and cytotoxic agent to germ cells in the male rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
  7. Mohammed KB, Ma TH
    Mutat Res, 1999 May 19;426(2):193-9.
    PMID: 10350597
    The clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the insecticide Dimethoate (Cygon-2E), herbicides Atrazine, Simazine (Princep), Dicamba (Banvel D) and Picloram (Tordon) were studied using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. In clone 4430, dimethoate fumes both significantly increased the pink mutation events and reduced the number of stamen hairs per filament with increasing dosages. The pink mutation events were elevated by the liquid treatment with Picloram at 100 ppm concentration. The result of Trad-MCN test on Dimethoate fumes was not significantly different between the control and treated groups. The herbicide Atrazine showed positive effects at 10-50 ppm dose (liquid) and signs of overdose at 100 and 500 ppm concentrations. Simazine was mildly positive in elevating the MCN frequencies in the dose range of 5 to 200 ppm (liquid doses). Both Dicamba and Picloram induced a dosage-related increase in MCN frequencies in the Trad-MCN tests using Tradescantia clone 03. However, in higher dosages (200 ppm or higher), there were signs of overdose, reduction of MCN frequencies and physical damage of the leaves and buds of plant cuttings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/toxicity*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links