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  1. Ho CC, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian J. Androl., 2011 Jul;13(4):537-42.
    PMID: 21643001 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.135
    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypogonadism/epidemiology
  2. Ratnasingam J, Karim N, Paramasivam SS, Ibrahim L, Lim LL, Tan AT, et al.
    Pituitary, 2015 Aug;18(4):448-55.
    PMID: 25134488 DOI: 10.1007/s11102-014-0593-6
    PURPOSE: Radiation fields for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) include the base of skull, which places the hypothalamus and pituitary at risk of damage. We aimed to establish the prevalence, pattern and severity of hypothalamic pituitary (HP) dysfunction amongst NPC survivors.

    METHODS: We studied 50 patients (31 males) with mean age 57 ± 12.2 years who had treatment for NPC between 3 and 21 years (median 8 years) without pre-existing HP disorder from other causes. All patients had a baseline cortisol, fT4, TSH, LH, FSH, oestradiol/testosterone, prolactin and renal function. All patients underwent dynamic testing with insulin tolerance test to assess the somatotroph and corticotroph axes. Baseline blood measurements were used to assess thyrotroph, gonadotroph and lactotroph function.

    RESULTS: Hypopituitarism was present in 82% of patients, 30% single axis, 28% two axes, 18% three axes and 6% four axes deficiencies. Somatotroph deficiency was most common (78%) while corticotroph, gonadotroph and thyrotroph deficiencies were noted in 40% (4 complete/16 partial), 22 and 4% of the patients respectively. Hyperprolactinaemia was present in 30% of patients. The development of HP dysfunction was significantly associated with the time elapsed from irradiation, OR 2.5 (1.2, 5.3), p = 0.02, for every 2 years post treatment. The use of concurrent chemo-irradiation (CCRT) compared to those who had radiotherapy alone was also significantly associated with HP dysfunction, OR 14.5 (2.4, 87.7), p < 0.01.

    CONCLUSION: Despite low awareness and detection rates, HP dysfunction post-NPC irradiation is common. Use of CCRT may augment time related pituitary damage. As these endocrinopathies result in significant morbidity and mortality we recommend periodic assessment of pituitary function amongst NPC survivors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hypogonadism/epidemiology
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