Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Ahmed A, Tanveer M, Dujaili JA, Chuah LH, Hashmi FK, Awaisu A
    AIDS Patient Care STDS, 2023 Jan;37(1):31-52.
    PMID: 36626156 DOI: 10.1089/apc.2022.0192
    People living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) frequently encounter antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-related problems. Clinical pharmacists with specialized training in ARV stewardship play an important role in managing these problems. However, there is a paucity of evidence to clarify the impact of clinical pharmacists' interventions on managing ARV therapy-related problems in PLWHA. Therefore, we aim to systematically review the literature to determine the nature and impact of pharmacists' interventions on managing medication-related problems in PLWHA. The review protocol was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020173078). Relevant records were identified from six electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register) from their inception until September 2022. We included all randomized and nonrandomized interventional studies that were published in English. After the abstract and full-text screening, data were extracted from the selected studies, and the quality of the studies was assessed. The electronic database search and citation tracking identified two thousand and three citations. The review included 21 of these studies, involving 2998 PLWHA, published between 2014 and 2022. Pharmacists' interventions, working alone or in a multi-disciplinary team, comprised ARV medication review, management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), therapeutic drug monitoring, prevention of drug interactions, and provision of drug information to PLWHA or the health care team. The pharmacist-involved interventions significantly reduced incorrect/incomplete ARV regimens, drug interactions, incorrect dosages, duplicate therapy, polypharmacy, administration errors, missing medication, wrong formulation, ADRs, and prescribing errors. Most studies reported that physicians usually accept more than 90% of the pharmacists' recommendations. ARV medication-related problems remain highly prevalent in PLWHA. Pharmacist-led interventions and stewardship significantly reduce ARV therapy-related problems in PLWHA and are widely accepted by physicians. Dedicated pharmacists with specialized training and credentialing in infectious diseases or HIV/AIDS have a great potential to improve health outcomes in PLWHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  2. Nik Yahya NSR, Jamaludin FIC, Firdaus MKZH, Che Hasan MK
    Enferm Clin, 2019 09;29 Suppl 2:521-527.
    PMID: 31281005 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.079
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of simulation-based exercise programme among overweight adult in higher learning institutes.

    METHOD: A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted recruiting students from two different higher learning institutions in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Students are selected after fulfilling the criteria such as body mass index (BMI) of ≥23kg/m2, no chronic diseases that may influence by exercise, no significant changes in body weight within two months and not taking any medications or supplements. One institution was purposely chosen as a simulation-based group and another one control group. In the simulation-based group, participants were given a booklet and CD to do aerobic and resistance exercise for a minimum of 25min per day, three times a week for 10 weeks. No exercise was given to the control group. Participants were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage before and after 10 weeks of simulation-based exercise.

    RESULTS: A total of 52 (control: 25, simulation-based: 27) participants involved in the study. There was no baseline characteristics difference between the two groups (p>0.005). All 27 participants in the simulation-based group reported performing the exercise based on the recommendation. The retention rate at three months was 100%. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. Better outcomes (p<0.001) were reported among participants in the simulation-based group for BMI, WC and body fat percentage.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the simulation-based exercise programme may be feasible for an overweight adult in higher learning institutes. As a feasibility study this is not powered to detect significant differences on the outcomes. However, participants reported positive views towards the recommended exercise with significant improvements in body mass index, body fat percentage and reduced the waist circumference.

    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  3. Dahlan ND, Gital YY
    Appl Ergon, 2016 May;54:169-76.
    PMID: 26851476 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2015.12.008
    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05). Sensory and affective responses as a consequence of thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that PMV is an acceptable alternative to predict thermal sensation immediately after a down-step thermal transition (≤ 1 min exposure duration) for people living in a hot-humid climate country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  4. Ong SL, Abdullah KL, Danaee M, Soh KL, Soh KG, Lee DSK, et al.
    J Clin Nurs, 2019 Feb;28(3-4):641-649.
    PMID: 30182455 DOI: 10.1111/jocn.14659
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of a structured nursing intervention program on maternal stress and NICU-related maternal ability after the admission of premature infants to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    BACKGROUND: Mothers of premature infants may face stress having premature infants, and their infants may be admitted to the NICU for a few weeks or months. The mothers' experience of stress would be worse if they have low knowledge and poor NICU-related maternal ability. Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU require well-planned interventions to cope with psychological matters arising after an infant hospitalisation.

    DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design.

    METHODS: A total of 216 mothers were consecutively assigned to control and intervention groups. Each group consisted of 108 mothers. The mothers in both groups received questionnaire concerning maternal stress and NICU-related ability during their first visit to NICU (within 48 hr of admission). A structured nursing intervention was implemented for 10 days on mothers in the intervention group. The control group continued to receive existing practice nursing care. Mothers of both groups were again given the questionnaire on maternal stress and NICU-related ability after 14 days of admission.

    RESULTS: In the intervention group, the difference between the mean total score of maternal stress and parental role and relationship subscale decreased significantly, compared to the control group (p = 0.04; p = 0.01) respectively. Maternal ability improved significantly in mothers in the intervention group 2 weeks postintervention, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  5. Butt SZ, Ahmad M, Saeed H, Saleem Z, Javaid Z
    J Infect Public Health, 2019 06 10;12(6):854-860.
    PMID: 31196776 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.05.015
    BACKGROUND: Guidelines assisted appropriate use of prophylactic antibiotics can lower the prevalence of surgical site infections (SSIs). The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact and cost-benefit value of pharmacist's educational intervention for antibiotic use in post-surgical prophylaxis.

    METHODS: A prospective quasi experimental study was conducted by enrolling 450 patients from tertiary care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan, 225 patients in each, control and intervention, arm using non-random convenient sampling. The study parameters included antibiotic indication, choice, dose, frequency, duration and associated costs. This study is registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry # ChiCTR-OON-17013246.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After educational intervention, in post-intervention arm, total compliance in terms of correct antibiotic choice, dose, frequency and duration increased from 1.3% to 12.4%. The rate of inappropriate antibiotic choice did not change significantly. After intervention only metronidazole utilization decreased (16%) significantly (p=0.011). Significant reductions were observed in mean duration of antibiotic prophylaxis (17%, p=0.003), average number of prescribed antibiotics (9.1%, p=0.014) and average antibiotic cost (25.7%, p=0.03), with reduction in mean hospitalization cost (p=0.003) and length of stay (p=0.023). Educational intervention was significantly associated (OR; 2.4, p=0.005) with appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. The benefit of pharmacist intervention, mean antibiotic cost savings to mean cost of pharmacist time, was 4.8:1. Thus, the educational intervention resulted in significant reductions in the duration and average number of antibiotic use having considerable effect on therapy and hospitalization cost.

    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  6. Khani Jeihooni A, Jormand H, Saadat N, Hatami M, Abdul Manaf R, Afzali Harsini P
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2021 Dec 07;21(1):589.
    PMID: 34876014 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-021-02399-3
    BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors have been identified as preventable risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this study aimed to investigate the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in nutritional behaviors related to cardiovascular diseases among the women in Fasa city, Fars province, Iran.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in two stages. First, the factors affecting nutritional behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease on 350 women who were referred to Fasa urban health centers were determined based on the TPB. In the second stage, based on the results of a cross-sectional study, quasi-expeimental study was performed on 200 women covered by Fasa health centers. The questionnaire used for the study was a questionnaire based on TPB. The questionnaire was completed by the experimental and control groups before and three months after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using logistic regression, paired t-test, independent sample t-test, and chi-square test. The level of significance is considered 0.05.

    RESULT: The constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were predictors of nutritional behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease in women. The constructs predicted 41.6% of the behavior. The results showed that mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, PBC, intention, nutritional performance related to the cardiovascular disease before intervention were, respectively, 24.32, 14.20, 18.10, 13.37 and 16.28, and after the intervention, were, respectively, 42.32, 25.40, 33.72, 30.13 and 41.38. All the constructs except the attitude in the intervention group were significantly higher (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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