METHOD: Patients above 18 years old, with any thyroid disorders, and without psychiatric disorders were included in this study. All participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). The depression symptom score was calculated and interpreted as follows: less than 9: no depression; between 10 and 13: mild depression; between 14 and 20: moderate depression; between 21 and 27: severe depression, and more than 28: extremely severe depression.
RESULTS: The total number of participants in this study was 199. There was no correlation between age, thyroid stimulating hormone, and the DASS score. There was also no significant difference in the DASS-21 score between genders. However, there was a positive correlation between depression symptoms and stressful life events (r=0.201, n=199, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings would suggest that increased depression symptom scores correlate with increased stressful life events. A larger study should be undertaken to confirm these findings.
METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 51 nurse managers in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, Pahang, by using modified and self-developed questionnaire with the Cronbach's alpha value 0.994. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as central tendency, frequency and percentage.
RESULTS: The gender of respondents was predominantly female (100%). The mean age is 45.41 (SD ± 4.51). In terms of level of education, the majority of the respondents (76.5%) were having a diploma. The majority has been in practice as a staff nurse between 11 to 20 years, and most of them have been practicing as nurse managers for about five years and less. Meanwhile, results showed that the nurse managers had positive perceptions upon newly graduated nurses' performance in the mentorship program, concerning on their effective communication, professional development and creative thinking.
CONCLUSIONS: It is vital to identify the effectiveness of the mentorship program among nurses; hence, it enhances job satisfaction among new nurses.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted among 375 secondary school students in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. The survey was adapted from a Hong Kong Red Cross survey. A back to back translation of this instrument was carried out by two bilingual medical experts with Cronbach's alpha 0.8. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) in terms of descriptive analysis, and an independent t-test and chi-square test were carried out.
RESULTS: There were 149 respondents from the lower form (grade level) and 226 respondents from the upper form. The majority of respondents (81.6%) were Malay. An independent t-test revealed a significant association between knowledge and attitude, as students who scored higher on first aid questions showed a more positive attitude towards first aid (1.475%). There were also significant associations between race and experience learning first aid.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents receive minimal first aid education. Thus, there is an urgent need to educate adolescents more in first aid to promote a safer community and to prevent any further injuries.
METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study of 65 Malay obese class I and class II adults aged 20-62 years (21 male, 44 female) from sub-urban areas of Malaysia. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine the triglyceride level (mmol/L). Subjects were classified into either normal or elevated triglyceride level groups based on the triglyceride level (normal < 1.6 mmol/L, elevated > 1.7 mmol/L). Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, defined as smoking status, hours per day spent on sitting passively and sitting with active motion, and the amount of saturated fat, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fat from dietary intake, were measured from 24-h dietary intake and physical activity recall. We compare the variables of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors between subjects with normal and elevated triglyceride level using independent samples t-test.
RESULTS: Among 65 obese class I and II adults, 16 subjects (24.6%) were found to have elevated triglyceride levels (mean ± standard deviation of body mass index 31.89 ± 3.29 kg/m2). There are significant differences between subjects having normal and elevated triglyceride level with gender, marital status, the number of children, smoking status, weight and monounsaturated fat intake (all P-values < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlighted elevated triglyceride level in obese adults might be influenced by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. We suggest that lifestyle modification intervention is appropriate to prevent cardiovascular disease among Malay obese class I and II adults.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Kuantan, Pahang. The purposive sampling method was chosen. 76 obese women aged 18 years old and above were included in the study. Data were collected by using the set of the self-reported questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic and the walking time for the past 7 days. The sample blood test was taken to check for hs-CRP level.
RESULTS: Walking time spent in minutes was found to be significantly inverse associated with the hs-CRP level (p=0.040) among obese women.
CONCLUSION: The increase in walking time spent can help reduce the hs-CRP level, therefore reduce the risk for CVD.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with convenience sampling employed across five different departments. The departments were a department of medical, surgical, orthopedics, emergency and rehabilitation. The samples were selected according to a minimum of two years of clinical experience without any history of low back surgery. An instrument consists of socio-demographic background, knowledge on body mechanics and Owestry Low Back Pain Disability Index Questionnaire was used in this study.
RESULTS: A total of 139 HCPs were recruited including medical officers, staff nurses, community health nurses, assistant medical officers, physiotherapists, and assistant nurses. A self-administered questionnaire pertaining to knowledge revealed that 73.4% of HCPs had inadequate knowledge of musculoskeletal body mechanics. Among all, 90.6% (minimal: 9.4%, moderate: 43.2%, severe: 42.4%, crippled: 5.0%) of HCPs showed moderate to crippled disability using Oswestry Disability Index classifications indicating the poor practice of body mechanics while working.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that a lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals lead to the inadequate practice of preserving musculoskeletal health while carrying out duty in caring patients. It is suggested that enforcing and emphasizing health education for healthcare professionals is urgently needed towards reducing the risk of the musculoskeletal problem among healthcare professionals.
METHODS: Single embedded qualitative case study design using in-depth individual face to face interviews were adopted. Twelve diabetes educators from three diabetes clinics in urban areas in Malaysia were purposively selected and interviewed within the period of eight months (November 2012-June 2013). The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Framework technique.
RESULT: The practice of diabetes educators revolved around the traditional paternalistic approach but emphasize on individualized support. However, their practice was restricted by several factors, including patients' acceptance and interest in self-care, lack of confidence and opportunity to practice, and fragmented health care system.
CONCLUSION: The current practice of diabetes educators is very limited to knowledge provision and rather a generalist. Considering a more specialized role would increase opportunities for diabetes educators to provide high-quality self-care support provision.
METHOD: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional with a quantitative study. There were 103 participants recruited. The data of this study were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) with one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test for significant analyses.
RESULT: The result showed that half of the fathers have high knowledge of pregnancy and knowledge on involvement regarding pregnancy. There is a significant difference between age factors with mean knowledge of father regarding pregnancy. Meanwhile, there is also a significant difference between age and knowledge on the involvement of father during pregnancy. In addition, a number of children and knowledge on the involvement of father during pregnancy also showed a significant association. The knowledge level of father regarding pregnancy and the knowledge on involvement during pregnancy among fathers is directly, linearly and moderately correlated.
CONCLUSION: This study can be concluded that fathers in Kuantan are possessed average knowledge on involvement regarding pregnancy. This shows that man lag behind in their responsibilities in pregnancy. In which, they do not clearly know what their role is during pregnancy.
METHODS: The principles of focused ethnography underpinned the study design. Fieldwork took place over six months in one 32-bedded paediatric oncology ward. Twenty-one children, ranging in ages from 7 to 12 years diagnosed with leukaemia, their parents and 19 nurses participated. Data collection consisted of participant observation and semi-structured interview.
RESULTS: Hospitalized children employed different roles of passive or active participants during the communication and decisions about their nursing care. Importantly, children are more likely to become active participants in the communication process when nurses interact directly with them, listening to them and giving them opportunities to ask questions in either the presence or absence of their parents. Equally, children are likely to be more passive participants when nurses do not communicate directly with them, choosing instead to directly interact with the child's parents. This study highlighted that the role of children as active and passive participants is not permanently engaged by individual children, rather their role fluctuates throughout the hospitalization journey. The fluctuations of a child's role are highly dependent on their preferences: how and when they want to be included in the communication and decisions process. Children's roles in communication and decisions are also varied and dependent on their particular contexts. A child's participation in one situation does not consistently reflect their participation with their role in other situations. The ways in which the children participate were oscillated throughout their hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical insight into children's experiences of triadic (child-nurse-parent) interaction during the decisions about their nursing care in paediatric oncological setting. A key recommendation calls for the development of assessment strategies to determine the 'ideal' position children would like to occupy, at any given point in time, throughout their hospitalization.
METHOD: The articles were searched through CINAHL, Scopus, Proquest, and OVID online database. Articles published from 2000, in English and among novice nurses were selected for review. Then, a narrative review was conducted guided by what are the existing simulation session been used and the impact on novice nurse.
RESULT: Total of 19 articles been selected for review out of 272 articles. The findings of the reviewed were divided into 3 main themes. The themes are the existing simulation session, simulation as a support tool in the transition program and the impact of simulation on novice nurses.
CONCLUSION: In summary, each simulation type has its learning domain. The effectiveness of the simulation will much depend on the appropriate simulation type selection.
METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was conducted recruiting patients from Hospital Melaka, Malaysia. Postoperative TKA patients with good hearing and visual acuity, fully conscious and prescribed with patients controlled analgesia (PCA) were randomized to either intervention or control groups using a sealed envelope. Patients in the intervention group received usual care with additional music therapy during recovery, while patients in the control group received the usual care provided by the hospital. Two factors identified affecting mental well-being were the pain (measured using numerical rating scale) and anxiety (measured using a visual analog scale) at five different minutes' points (0, 10, 20, 30, and 60).
RESULTS: A total of 56 (control: 28, intervention: 28) postoperative TKA patients consented in the study. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups (p>0.05). Using Mann-Whitney U tests, patients in music therapy group showed significantly lower numerical pain score at 60min (p=0.045) whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at all time points for anxiety scores (p>0.05). In the intervention group, Friedman tests showed that there was a significant difference in numerical pain (χ2=36.957, df=4, p<0.001) and anxiety score across times (χ2=18.545, p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: This study found that pain score decreases over time among patients in the music therapy group while no effect is seen for anxiety. It is suggested that music therapy could not affect postoperative TKA patients' mental well-being. Nonetheless, patients reported better pain score despite the small sample.
METHOD: A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted recruiting students from two different higher learning institutions in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Students are selected after fulfilling the criteria such as body mass index (BMI) of ≥23kg/m2, no chronic diseases that may influence by exercise, no significant changes in body weight within two months and not taking any medications or supplements. One institution was purposely chosen as a simulation-based group and another one control group. In the simulation-based group, participants were given a booklet and CD to do aerobic and resistance exercise for a minimum of 25min per day, three times a week for 10 weeks. No exercise was given to the control group. Participants were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage before and after 10 weeks of simulation-based exercise.
RESULTS: A total of 52 (control: 25, simulation-based: 27) participants involved in the study. There was no baseline characteristics difference between the two groups (p>0.005). All 27 participants in the simulation-based group reported performing the exercise based on the recommendation. The retention rate at three months was 100%. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. Better outcomes (p<0.001) were reported among participants in the simulation-based group for BMI, WC and body fat percentage.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the simulation-based exercise programme may be feasible for an overweight adult in higher learning institutes. As a feasibility study this is not powered to detect significant differences on the outcomes. However, participants reported positive views towards the recommended exercise with significant improvements in body mass index, body fat percentage and reduced the waist circumference.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried in six faculties (Kulliyyah) in IIUM Kuantan campus using an adopted self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected after obtaining ethical approval and analyzed the data by using SPSS version 20.0.
RESULT: Relatively low level of knowledge and awareness (73.8%) and high stigma (67.9%) about TB disease was found among IIUM Kuantan students. There was a significant association between type of Kulliyyah and level of knowledge and awareness. The level of TB perception does not have any significant association with the level of knowledge and awareness of TB disease.
CONCLUSION: These findings would suggest that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge, awareness, and perception of students regarding TB disease.
METHOD: Data presented in this paper comes from semi-structured interviews of 33 women (from three different cultural backgrounds) attending for a child or postnatal care in six purposively selected maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Kuala Lumpur.
RESULTS: Data were analyzed using framework analysis, which consists of three interrelated stages. In the first stage (data management), a careful selection of the data (transcripts) to be reviewed was made. The initial categories were developed based on the selected transcripts, and the initial themes were decided (known as a thematic framework). In the second stage (descriptive accounts), the thematic framework was investigated to identify any linkage and similarity between one category to another. The third stage of the analysis (explanatory accounts) involved checking exactly how the level of matching between the phenomena was distributed across the whole set of data. Using framework analysis, four themes were identified to explain the women's experience of postnatal depression namely the changes, causal explanations, dealing with postnatal depression, and perceived impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: The details of each stage of the analysis were explained to guide researchers through essential steps in undertaking framework analysis. Health care researchers may find a worked example addressed in this paper as useful when analyzing qualitative data.
METHOD: A cohort study was conducted where 33 severe TBI survivors recruited at two tertiary hospitals. The health-related quality of life was measured using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) tool.
RESULTS: Participants mean age was 31.79 years old. The impaired range of health-related quality of life on 6 months post-injury seen, but an improvement occurs within 3-6 months post-injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Age and ventilation duration showed a moderate negative correlation in all domains and length of hospital stay showed a moderate negative correlation to social, daily life and self-domains. Nevertheless, small sample size and time constraint were the limitations of this study.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 400 participants who presented at four shopping malls in Kuantan city. A convenient sampling method was used to recruit participants. A self-administered questionnaire was used in collecting data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22.0.
RESULTS: Majority of the participants were Malays with mean age among 18-39 years old. Of the 400 participants, the majority had high knowledge of CHD poor awareness and poor perception of CHD. There was an association between socio-demographics and knowledge, awareness, and perception level towards CHD with p-value <0.05.
CONCLUSION: These study findings indicated that public health promotion and intervention are needed in Kuantan, Pahang regards to knowledge and awareness of CHD symptoms and risk factors.
METHOD: Guided by the PRISMA Statement review checklist, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science database has identified 10 related studies. The articles were assessed and analyzed after evaluated using The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools (JBI). Thematic analysis was obtained after using Nvivo software as a tool for data analysis by author.
RESULT: Further review of these articles resulted in three main themes-maternal changes during expressing breast milk, pumping challenges and impact of motivation factors to initiating lactation.
CONCLUSION: Expressing breast milk should be recognized as an important way to restructure motherhood with a preterm infant in NICU. However, maintaining expressed breast milk during preterm infants' treatment period in NICU may increase stress and difficulties for some mothers. Some recommendations are emphasized in relation to the need for more qualitative studies in this issue, which is to have a specific and standard systematic review method for guide research synthesis in context of climate change adaptation.
METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional study design was adopted. Honey and Mumford's Learning Style Questionnaire was used to explore the learning styles.
RESULTS: The reflector learning style was most preferred by the Malaysian healthcare undergraduates, and no significant difference was found between the learning styles of the clinical group and the semi-clinical group.
CONCLUSIONS: Educators should engage Malaysian healthcare undergraduates in a non-threatening environment - Association between learning style and sociodemographic warrants further investigation.