Bone is unique in its ability to adapt structure to functional requirements, but as is all too obvious in an ever-ageing population it is susceptible to a number of degenerative diseases. Therefore there is an increasing need for materials for bone replacement. Clearly, the ideal material with which to replace bone, would be bone itself, but the major problem now facing us is that there is an insufficient supply of the natural bone to satisfy the clinical requirements. Hence, there is a need for the development of chemically synthesised bone graft substitutes
Defects were created in the mandible of a rabbit model whereby the right side was implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) while the left side was left empty to act as control. Both the implant and control sites were evaluated clinically and histologically at 4,12,20,22 weeks. Decalcified sections were studied under confocal laser scanning microscope. No reactive cells were evident microscopically in all sections. There was bone ingrowth as early as 4 weeks when viewed by the topographic method. Enhancement of osteoconduction was evident by the presence of abundant capillaries, perivascular tissue and osteoprogenitor cells of the host. At 22 weeks, the implanted defect showed mature bone formation filling almost the whole field. This study demonstrated that the dense HA exhibits excellent biocompatibility as noted by the complete absence of reactive cells. It also promotes osteoconduction.
The study was carried out to evaluate macroscopically the ability of coral to repair a large size bone defect. A total 12 adult, male sheep were used in the study. The large bone defect (2.5cm x 0.5cm x 0.5cm) was created surgically on the left proximal femur and replaced by a block of coral (Porites sp.). Radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-implantation. Ultrasonographic examinations were carried out every 2 weeks after implantation up to 12 weeks using ultrasound machine (TOSHIBA Capasee II) connected with 7MHz frequency transducer. The sheep were euthanased at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation and the bone examined grossly. Both ultrasonographs and radiographs taken at 8 and 12 weeks showed that the implants had been resorbed and left the space that much reduced in size. There was no sign of implant rejection observed in all animals. The results showed that processed coral has potential to become bone substitute for reconstructive bone surgery.
This in vivo study revealed that porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) and dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) are good implant materials that can accelerate bone healing and resorbed in acceptable time. But there were differences in the mechanism of the resorption of DHA and PHA due to variability in the physical properties and osteogenicity.
Avian demineralized bone matrix (ADBM) powder prepared from chicken, pigeon, and turkey sources induced bone formation via endochondral and intramembranous processes, as in mammalian studies. There were no significant differences in percentage of new bone, percentage of cartilage, surface-forming osteoblast area, or osteoclast count between gaps treated with chicken, pigeon, and turkey DBM. However, there was a significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of inflammatory area in gaps treated with chicken DBM than in gaps treated with pigeon DBM.
This study is to qualitatively evaluate a locally produced hydroxyapatite (HA), made by AMREC-SIRIM in an experimental animal bone defect using New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. HA cylindrical blocks measuring 2.5 mm (D) x 1.0 mm (H) were implanted in the rabbits' left tibia. The tibias were harvested within one to three weeks post-implantation. The implantion site was cut into thin undecalcified sections of about 30 microm to 60 microm and stained with Toluidine Blue and Goldner's Masson Trichrome. Microscopic examinations using standard light microscopy of these slides were performed.
There was a significant increased in Absolute Contact Length measurements of endosteal bone growth along the Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) implant coated with the natural coral powder and Hydroxyapatite (HA) compared to the non-calcium coated implants. This study demonstrated that coated implants seemed to show earlier and higher osseointergration phenomena compared to non coated ones. Furthermore, there was significantly greater bone-to-implant contact at the apical 1/3rd of the coated implants.
The standard bioglass composition GS45 as well as with excess silica GS50 or with the addition of 5% titanium oxide GS45+Ti5, were prepared by the polymeric route. The different glass components were added to the formed polymer. Firing at 700 degrees C gave an amorphous product with microporous texture that readily crystallizes out at 900 degrees C. The prepared materials were highly porous with two modes of pore system micro-pores and macro-pores with a size ranging between 100 microm to 0.006 microm and a porosity reaching 73%. The measured bulk density was between 0.36 to 1.1g/cm3. The fired material preserved the former structure of the polymer precursor. Biocompatibility was verified in vitro and vivo. IR of the specimens previously immersed in SBF revealed the formation of apatite like layer. While the histology sections of implants in rate femurs showed new bone tissue or bone trabeculae after 21 days.
Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA), hydroxyapatite (HA), chitosan and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) were studied and evaluated for possible bone tissue engineered construct acting as good support for osteogenic cells to proliferate, differentiate, and eventually spread and integrate into the scaffold. Surface morphology visualized by SEM showed that scaffold materials with additional fibrin had more cell densities attached than those without, depicting that the presence of fibrin and collagen fibers were truly a favourite choice of cells to attach. In comparison of various biomaterials used incorporated with fibrin, TCP/HA had the most cluster of cells attached.
In this study the surface properties of two particulate coral and polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) were studied in order to characterize them prior to use in composite production. Coral powder and PHB particle were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, to measure surface porosity and pores size. The results showed that coral powder has multiple pleomorphic micropores cross each others give appearance of micro-interconnectivity. Some pore reached to 18 microm with an average porosity of 70%. PHB revealed multiple different size pores extended to the depth, with an average some times reach 25 microm and porosity 45%. These findings demonstrate that both coral and PHB have excellent pores size and porosity that facilitate bone in growth, vascular invasion and bone development. We believe that incorporation of coral powder into PHB will make an excellent composite scaffold for tissue engineering.
Metallic materials implanted into bone defects are generally encapsulated by a fibrous tissue. Some metallic materials such as titanium and tantalum, however, have been revealed to bond to the living bone without forming the fibrous tissue, when they were subjected to NaOH solution and heat treatments. Thus treated metals form bone tissue around them even in muscle, when they take a porous form. This kind of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are attributed to sodium titanate or tantalate layer on their surfaces formed by the NaOH and heat treatments. These layers induce the deposition of bonelike apatite on the surface of the metals in the living body. This kind of bioactive metals are useful as bone substitutes even highly loaded portions, such as hip joint, spine and tooth root.
Titanium and its alloy are known as important load-bearing biomaterials. The major drawbacks of these metals are fibrous formation and low corrosion rate after implantation. The surface modification of biomedical implants through various methods such as plasma spray improves their osseointegration and clinical lifetime. Different materials have been already used as coatings on biomedical implant, including calcium phosphates and bioglass. However, these materials have been reported to have limited clinical success. The excellent bioactivity of calcium silicate (Ca-Si) has been also regarded as coating material. However, their high degradation rate and low mechanical strength limit their further coating application. Trace element modification of (Ca-Si) bioceramics is a promising method, which improves their mechanical strength and chemical stability. In this review, the potential of trace element-modified silicate coatings on better bone formation of titanium implant is investigated.