Displaying all 17 publications

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  1. Winit-Watjana W
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Dec;24(6):428-436.
    PMID: 27339891 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12281
    OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research.

    KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration
  2. Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2012 Jun 18;76(5):93.
    PMID: 22761534 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe76593
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  3. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Azhar S, See OG
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2012 May-Jun;8(3):258-62.
    PMID: 21824823 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2011.06.002
    The role of pharmacists has transformed significantly because of changes in pharmacists' training and population health demands. Within this context, community pharmacists are recognized as important health personnel for the provision of extended health services. Similarly, in Malaysia, the need to transform community pharmacy practice has been discussed by all interested parties; however, the transition has been slow due in part to the nonexistence of a dispensing separation policy between pharmacists and medical doctors in private community practices. For decades, medical doctors in private community practices have had the right to prescribe and dispense, thus diluting the role of community pharmacists because of overlapping roles. This article explores dispensing separation in Malaysia and, by taking into account the needs of health professionals and health care consumers, suggests a mechanism for how dispensing separation practice can be implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  4. Dokbua S, Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Saini B, Krass I, Dhippayom T
    J Manag Care Spec Pharm, 2018 Nov;24(11):1184-1196.
    PMID: 30362920 DOI: 10.18553/jmcp.2018.24.11.1184
    BACKGROUND: Current evidence of the effects of pharmacy services on asthma outcomes are not conclusive, since most pharmacy services comprise a variety of interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a service containing self-management support delivered by community pharmacists to patients with asthma.

    METHODS: A systematic search was performed in the following databases from inception to January 2017: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library's Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and PsycInfo. Original studies were selected if they met the following criteria: (a) provided by community pharmacists; (b) the intervention service included the essential components of asthma self-management; (c) included a usual care group; and (d) measured control/severity of asthma symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or medication adherence.

    RESULTS: Of the 639 articles screened, 12 studies involving 2,121 asthma patients were included. Six studies were randomized trials, and the other 6 were nonrandomized trials. Patients with asthma who received a self-management support service by community pharmacists had better symptom control/lower severity compared with those receiving usual care (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82) with high heterogeneity (I2=82.6%; P = 0.000). The overall improvement in HRQOL and medication adherence among patients in the asthma self-management support group was greater than for those in the usual care group with SMD of 0.23 (95% CI = 0.12-0.34) and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.27-0.61), respectively. Evidence of heterogeneity was not observed in these 2 outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-management support service provided by community pharmacists can help improve symptom control, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with asthma.

    DISCLOSURES: This study received financial support from Naresuan University's Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Fund. Two authors, Saini and Krass, have studies that were included in this review. However, they were not involved in the processes that could bias outcomes of the present study, that is, quality assessment and meta-analysis. The remaining authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  5. Tiong JJ, Mai CW, Gan PW, Johnson J, Mak VS
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Aug;24(4):302-5.
    PMID: 26777986 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12244
    This article serves as an update to the work by Shafie et al. (2012) which previously reviewed the benefits of policies separating prescribing and dispensing in various countries to advocate its implementation in Malaysia. This article seeks to strengthen the argument by highlighting not only the weaknesses of the Malaysian health care system from the historical, professional and economic viewpoints but also the shortcomings of both medical and pharmacy professions in the absence of separation of dispensing. It also provides a detailed insight into the ongoing initiatives taken to consolidate the role of pharmacists in the health care system in the advent of separation of dispensing. Under the two tier system in Malaysia at present, the separation of prescribing and dispensing is implemented only in government hospitals. The absence of this separation in the private practices has led to possible profit-oriented medical and pharmacy practices which hinder safe and cost-effective delivery of health services. The call for separation of dispensing has gained traction over the years despite various hurdles ranging from the formidable resistance from the medical fraternity to the public's scepticism towards the new policy. With historical testament and present evidence pointing towards the merits of a system in which doctors prescribe and pharmacists dispense, the implementation of this health care model is justified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  6. Ahmad A, Khan MU
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 04 23;12(5):811-2.
    PMID: 27157865 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.04.003
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  7. Mak VS, March G, Clark A, Gilbert AL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2014 Oct;22(5):366-72.
    PMID: 24428202 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12090
    OBJECTIVE: To explore South Australian (SA) pharmacy interns' values, beliefs and motivations to study pharmacy and their assessment of how well their pharmacy education has prepared them for activities required of all health professionals under Australia's health care reforms.
    METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 136 SA pharmacy interns enrolled in SA intern training programmes in February 2010 (second month of the intern training programme).
    KEY FINDINGS: Sixty (44%) of SA pharmacy interns responded; 75% selected pharmacy as a career because of an interest in health-related sciences and 65% valued working with patients. Respondents believed their pharmacy education prepared them for patient care (80%), providing medicine information (72%) and primary health care delivery (68%), but 51% indicated that they were not prepared for multidisciplinary team care.
    CONCLUSIONS: The positive values, beliefs and motivations expressed by respondents are significant behavioural precursors to meet the requirements of health professionals in Australia's health care reforms. Respondents indicated that their pharmacy education provided appropriate training in a number of relevant professional areas.
    KEYWORDS: behaviour; career choice; education; pharmacy interns; preparedness
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration
  8. Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Al-Haddad MS, Abduelkarem AR, Ibrahim MI, Palaian S, et al.
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2011 Dec;7(4):415-20.
    PMID: 21272536 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.10.003
    The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  9. Balan S, Hassali MA, Mak VSL
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 May-Jun;13(3):653-655.
    PMID: 27493130 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.06.014
    The pediatric population is an enormously diverse segment of population varying both in size and age. The diversity caused pharmacists face various challenges primarily related to procuring, provision as well as use of drugs in this group of patients. Pediatric dose calculation is particularly a concern for pharmacists. Another challenge faced by pharmacists is unavailability of suitable formulations for pediatric use. This has also led many pharmacists to prepare extemporaneous liquid preparations, even though stability data on such preparations are scarce. Some extemporaneous preparations contain excipients which are potentially harmful in children. Besides that, inadequate labeling and drug information for pediatric drug use had not only challenged pharmacists in recommending and optimizing drug use in children, but also inadvertently caused many drugs used outside the approved terms of the product license (off-label use). Pharmacists are striving to stay connected to overcome the common and comparable challenges faced in their day to day duties and strive to maximize the safe and effective use of medicines for children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  10. Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Kow CS, Ghori MU, Babar ZU
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2017 Oct;17(5):431-439.
    PMID: 28825502 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2017.1370376
    INTRODUCTION: Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  11. Hatah E, Tordoff J, Duffull SB, Braund R
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2014 Jan-Feb;10(1):185-94.
    PMID: 23688540 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.04.008
    In New Zealand, pharmacists are funded to provide adherence support to their patients via a service called "Medicines Use Review" (MUR). The service is based on the assumption that the medication regimen is clinically appropriate and therefore does not include a clinical review. However, whether or not pharmacists make clinical recommendations to patients during MUR is unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  12. Siow JY, Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2009 Oct;17(5):305-11.
    PMID: 20214273
    In recent years, the usage of activated vitamin D (alpha-calcidol and calcitriol) in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) has escalated and this has put unnecessary burden on the hospital's limited health care budget. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a clinical pharmacist's intervention in reducing the inappropriate use of activated vitamin D.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  13. Salih MR, Bahari MB, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Al-Lela OQ, Abd AY, et al.
    J Pharm Pract, 2013 Jun;26(3):192-7.
    PMID: 22797836 DOI: 10.1177/0897190012451926
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the practices associated with the application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the management of children with structural-metabolic epilepsy.
    METHODS: It was a retrospective chart review and included children aged ≥2 years old with structural-metabolic epilepsy, treated with AEDs, and received TDM. The data were extracted from the medical records.
    RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were identified with 50 TDM assays. In two thirds of the assays, "check level" and "recheck level" were the reasons behind the requesting of serum level monitoring of AEDs. Knowledge of serum AED levels led to alterations in the management in 60% of the assays. Thirty-two (76%) pediatrician's actions were consistent with the recommendation of TDM pharmacist. Forty-nine (98%) levels were appropriately indicated. In relation to the appropriateness of sampling time, 9 (18%) levels were not assessed due to missing data. Twenty-seven (54%) levels were appropriately sampled.
    CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be designed to improve the component of the current TDM request form, especially in the reason section. By the same token, the number of pointless assays and the costs to the health care system can be reduced both by enhancing and improving the educational standards of the requesting neurologists.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; epilepsy; neurology; pediatrics; therapeutic drug monitoring
    Study site: Paediatric Neurology Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration
  14. Lee EL, Wong PS, Tan MY, Sheridan J
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2018 Apr;26(2):138-147.
    PMID: 28574154 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12374
    OBJECTIVES: This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively.
    KEY FINDINGS: Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services.
    CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia.
    Study site: primary care health clinic (klinik kesihatan), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  15. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2013 Aug;35(4):629-37.
    PMID: 23677816 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-013-9784-x
    BACKGROUND: This study describes the analysis of secondary outcomes from a previously published randomised controlled trial, which assessed the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence, persistence and bone turnover markers. The main focus of this manuscript is the effect of the provision of pharmaceutical care on these secondary outcomes, and details on the design of the intervention provided, the osteoporosis care plan and materials used to deliver the intervention.
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on knowledge, quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction of postmenopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates, and their associating factors.
    SETTING: Randomised controlled trial, performed at an osteoporosis clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis (T-score ≤-2.5/lowtrauma fracture), just been prescribed weekly alendronate/risedronate were randomly allocated to receive intervention or standard care (controls). Intervention participants received a medication review, education on osteoporosis, risk factors, lifestyle modifications, goals of therapy, side effects and the importance of medication adherence at months 0, 3, 6 and 12.
    MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: Knowledge, QOL and satisfaction.
    RESULTS: A total of 198 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were recruited: intervention = 100 and control = 98. Intervention participants reported significantly higher knowledge scores at months 3 (72.50 vs. 62.50 %), 6 (75.00 vs. 65.00 %) and 12 (78.75 vs. 68.75 %) compared to control participants. QOL scores were also lower (which indicates better QOL) at months 3 (29.33 vs. 38.41), 6 (27.50 vs. 36.56) and 12 (27.53 vs. 37.56) compared to control participants. Similarly, satisfaction score was higher in intervention participants (93.67 vs. 84.83 %). More educated women, with back pain, who were provided pharmaceutical care had better knowledge levels. Similarly, older, more educated women, with previous falls and back pain tend to have poorer QOL, whilst women who exercised more frequently and were provided pharmaceutical care had better QOL. Satisfaction also increased as QOL increases and when provided pharmaceutical care.
    CONCLUSION: The provision of pharmaceutical care improved knowledge, QOL and satisfaction in Malaysian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, showing that pharmacists have the potential to improve patients' overall bone health. Policymakers should consider placing a clinical pharmacist in the osteoporosis clinic to provide counselling to improve these outcomes.
    Study site: Osteoporosis clinics, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration
  16. Hassan Y, Al-Ramahi RJ, Aziz NA, Ghazali R
    Ann Pharmacother, 2009 Oct;43(10):1598-605.
    PMID: 19776297 DOI: 10.1345/aph.1M187
    Appropriate drug selection and dosing for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is important to avoid unwanted drug effects and ensure optimal patient outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration*
  17. Chong CP, Hassali MA, Bahari MB, Shafie AA
    Health Policy, 2010 Jan;94(1):68-75.
    PMID: 19762106 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.08.011
    This study aims to provide baseline data to support the implementation of generic substitution policy in Malaysia by evaluating the community pharmacists' perceptions and opinions on generic substitution and current substitution practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists/organization & administration
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