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  1. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Yusof F, Sunderasan E
    Methods, 2002 May;27(1):32-45.
    PMID: 12079415 DOI: 10.1016/S1046-2023(02)00049-X
    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  2. Yip E, Cacioli P
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2002 Aug;110(2 Suppl):S3-14.
    PMID: 12170237 DOI: 10.1067/mai.2002.124499
    Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  3. Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Latif MA
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2017 Jul;97(9):2810-2818.
    PMID: 27778337 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8109
    BACKGROUND: The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor.

    RESULTS: Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219.

    CONCLUSION: The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  4. Kurup VP, Kumar A, Kelly KJ, Fink JN
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1993 Nov;92(5):638-43.
    PMID: 8227854 DOI: 10.1016/0091-6749(93)90005-z
    Several hybridomas were produced against antigens extracted from the latex sap of Hevea brasiliensis. One of the monoclonal antibodies (LA-E3) reacted with antigens demonstrating binding to patient sera on crossed enzyme immunoelectrophoresis. This monoclonal antibody reacted with 2 of 10 glove extracts studied and with both Malaysian and Indian latex plant extracts. The antigens purified with monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography demonstrated specific IgE in the sera of patients with latex allergy as determined by ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can thus be utilized to obtain reliable antigens useful in the diagnosis of latex sensitivity, although additional antigens will likely be necessary to enhance sensitivity and specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology*
  5. Johar A, Lim DL, Arif SA, Hawarden D, Toit GD, Weinberg EG, et al.
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 2005 Mar;16(2):165-70.
    PMID: 15787875
    Spina bifida children have a high prevalence of latex allergy in studies reported from Europe and the USA. This study investigated the prevalence of latex allergy in a cohort of 24 spina bifida children at the Red Cross Children's Hospital from Cape Town, South Africa. The children were investigated using a detailed questionnaire, skin prick tests (ALK-Abello), ImmunoCap RASTs, Western blotting and ELISA, using the purified latex proteins Hev b1 and Hev b3 and whole latex preparation. A low overall prevalence of latex sensitization of 16.7% was found in the children. Children who were sensitive reacted to water insoluble to Hev b1 and Hev b3 proteins. The low prevalence of latex sensitization in the South African children may not be entirely explained by stringent latex avoidance. The children were from a low socioeconomic social status and 'hygiene' and other factors should be considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  6. Yeang HY, Chow KS, Yusof F, Arif SA, Chew NP, Loke YH
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 2000 Jul-Aug;10(4):215-22.
    PMID: 11039838
    Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  7. Yeang HY, Cheong KF, Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Chew NP, Hamid S, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1996 Sep;98(3):628-39.
    PMID: 8828541 DOI: 10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70097-0
    Two major water-insoluble proteins are located on the surface of rubber particles in Hevea brasiliensis latex. A 14.6 kd protein (Hev b 1), found mainly on large rubber particles (> 350 mm in diameter), and a 24 kd protein (Hev b 3), found mainly on small rubber particles (average diameter, 70 nm), are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. Although Hev b 1 (also called the rubber elongation factor [REF]) has previously been reported as a major latex allergen, this conclusion has been disputed on the basis of results from other studies. The allergenicity of Hev b 1 is verified in this study by testing the recombinant protein generated from its gene. Because allergenicity is confined to patients with spina bifida and not observed in adults sensitive to latex, it is not a major latex allergen. The identification of Hev b 3 as another allergen originating from rubber particles is confirmed by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. Observations with the monoclonal antibody USM/RC2 developed against Hev b 3 show that the protein has a tendency to fragment into several polypeptides of lower molecular weight (from 24 kd to about 5 kd) when stored at -20 degrees C. There is also indication of protein aggregation from the appearance of proteins with molecular weights greater than 24 kd. Fragmentation of Hev b 3 is induced immediately on he addition of latex B-serum, which is normally compartmentalized in the lutoids in fresh latex. In the preparation of ammoniated latex (used for the manufacture of latex products), the lutoids are ruptured, and the released B-serum reacts with Hev b 3 on the rubber particles to give rise to an array of low molecular weight polypeptides that are allergenic to patients with spina bifida.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology*
  8. Yeang HY, Hamilton RG, Bernstein DI, Arif SA, Chow KS, Loke YH, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2006 Aug;36(8):1078-86.
    PMID: 16911364 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02531.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hevea brasiliensis latex serum is commonly used as the in vivo and in vitro reference antigen for latex allergy diagnosis as it contains the full complement of latex allergens.

    OBJECTIVE:
    This study quantifies the concentrations of the significant allergens in latex serum and examines its suitability as an antigen source in latex allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    METHODS:
    The serum phase was extracted from centrifuged latex that was repeatedly freeze-thawed or glycerinated. Quantitation of latex allergens was performed by two-site immunoenzymetric assays. The abundance of RNA transcripts of the latex allergens was estimated from the number of their clones in an Expressed Sequence Tags library.

    RESULTS:
    The latex allergens, Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 13, were detected in freeze-thawed and glycerinated latex serum at levels ranging from 75 (Hev b 6) to 0.06 nmol/mg total proteins (Hev b 4). Hev b 6 content in the latex was up to a thousand times higher than the other seven latex allergens, depending on source and/or preparation procedure. Allergen concentration was reflected in the abundance of mRNA transcripts. When used as the antigen, latex serum may bias the outcome of latex allergy diagnostic tests towards sensitization to Hev b 6. Tests that make use of latex serum may fail to detect latex-specific IgE reactivity in subjects who are sensitized only to allergens that are present at low concentrations.

    CONCLUSION:
    Latex allergy diagnostics and immunotherapy that use whole latex serum as the antigen source may not be optimal because of the marked imbalance of its constituent allergens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology*
  9. Sunderasan E, Bahari A, Arif SA, Zainal Z, Hamilton RG, Yeang HY
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2005 Nov;35(11):1490-5.
    PMID: 16297147 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02371.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hev b 4 is an allergenic natural rubber latex (NRL) protein complex that is reactive in skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays. On SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Hev b 4 is discerned predominantly at 53-55 kDa together with a 57 kDa minor component previously identified as a cyanogenic glucosidase. Of the 13 NRL allergens recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the 53-55 kDa Hev b 4 major protein is the only candidate that lacks complete cDNA and protein sequence information.

    OBJECTIVE:
    We sought to clone the transcript encoding the Hev b 4 major protein, and characterize the native protein and its recombinant form in relation to IgE binding.

    METHODS:
    The 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method was employed to obtain the complete cDNA of the Hev b 4 major protein. A recombinant form of the protein was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The native Hev b 4 major protein was deglycosylated by trifluoromethane sulphonic acid. Western immunoblots of the native, deglycosylated and recombinant proteins were performed using both polyclonal antibodies and sera from latex-allergic patients.

    RESULTS:
    The cDNA encoding the Hev b 4 major protein was cloned. Its open reading frame matched lecithinases in the conserved domain database and contained 10 predicted glycosylation sites. Detection of glycans on the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue confirmed it to be a glycoprotein. The deglycosylated lecithinase homologue was discerned at 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE, this being comparable to the 38.53 kDa mass predicted by its cDNA. Deglycosylation of the lecithinase homologue resulted in the loss of IgE recognition, although reactivity to polyclonal rabbit anti-Hev b 4 was retained. IgE from latex-allergic patients also failed to recognize the non-glycosylated E. coli recombinant lecithinase homologue.

    CONCLUSION:
    The IgE epitopes of the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue reside mainly in its carbohydrate moiety, which also account for the discrepancy between the observed molecular weight of the protein and the value calculated from its cDNA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  10. Habib MA, Yuen GC, Othman F, Zainudin NN, Latiff AA, Ismail MN
    Biochem. Cell Biol., 2017 04;95(2):232-242.
    PMID: 28177774 DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2016-0144
    The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  11. Kurup VP, Yeang HY, Sussman GL, Bansal NK, Beezhold DH, Kelly KJ, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2000 Mar;30(3):359-69.
    PMID: 10691894
    BACKGROUND: Latex allergy is largely an occupational allergy due to sensitization to natural rubber latex allergens present in a number of health care and household products. Although several purified allergens are currently available for study, information on the usefulness of these purified, native or recombinant allergens in the demonstration of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the sera of patients is lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the purified latex allergens and to demonstrate specific IgE antibody in the sera of health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical latex allergy.

    METHODS: Two radioallergosorbent and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using latex proteins Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 along with two glove extracts and Malaysian nonammoniated latex (MNA) were evaluated to demonstrate IgE in the sera of health care workers and spina bifida with latex allergy and controls with no history of latex allergy.

    RESULTS: ELISA using the purified latex allergens demonstrated specific IgE in 32-65% health care workers and 54-100% of spina bifida patients with latex allergy. The corresponding figures for RAST were 13-48 and 23-85 for RAST-1 and 19-61 and 36-57 for RAST-2. These results were comparable with the results obtained with glove extracts and crude rubber latex proteins.

    CONCLUSIONS: When used simultaneously, latex proteins Hev b 2 and Hev b 7 reacted significantly with specific serum IgE in 80% of health care workers and 92% of spina bifida patients with latex allergy by ELISA technique, while this combination gave lower positivity when the RASTs were used. By the addition of Hev b 3, specific IgE was detected in all spina bifida patients with latex allergy. Both RASTs failed to show specific IgE in the control subjects, while the ELISA showed significant latex-specific IgE in 22% of controls.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology
  12. Mahdavi F, Sariah M, Maziah M
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2012 Feb;166(4):1008-19.
    PMID: 22183565 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9489-3
    The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology*
  13. Wagner B, Krebitz M, Buck D, Niggemann B, Yeang HY, Han KH, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1999 Nov;104(5):1084-92.
    PMID: 10550757
    BACKGROUND: Two natural rubber latex proteins, Hev b 1 and Hev b 3, have been described in spina bifida (SB)-associated latex allergy.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clone and express Hev b 3 and to obtain the immunologic active and soluble recombinant allergen for diagnosis of SB-associated latex allergy.

    METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for Hev b 3 was amplified from RNA of fresh latex collected from Malaysian rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). PCR primers were designed according to sequences of internal peptide fragments of natural (n) Hev b 3. The 5'-end sequence was obtained by specific amplification of cDNA ends. The recombinant (r) Hev b 3 was produced in Escherichia coli as a 6xHis tagged protein. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays were performed to characterize the recombinant allergen.

    RESULTS: An Hev b 3 cDNA clone of 922 bp encoding a protein of 204 amino acid residues corresponding to a molecular weight of 22.3 kd was obtained. In immunoblots 29/35, latex-allergic patients with SB revealed IgE binding to rHev b 3, as did 4 of 15 of the latex-sensitized group. The presence of all IgE epitopes on rHev b 3 was shown by its ability to abolish all IgE binding to nHev b 3. Hev b 3 is related to Hev b 1 by a sequence identity of 47%. Cross-reactivity between these 2 latex allergens was illustrated by the large extent of inhibition of IgE binding to nHev b 1 by rHev b 3.

    CONCLUSION: rHev b 3 constitutes a suitable in vitro reagent for the diagnosis of latex allergy in patients with SB. The determination of the full sequence of Hev b 3 and the production of the recombinant allergen will allow the epitope mapping and improve diagnostic reagents for latex allergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/immunology*
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