Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Kristmundsson Á, Erlingsdóttir Á, Freeman MA
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144685.
    PMID: 26684810 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144685
    Due to the total and unexpected collapse of the Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica, stocks around Iceland during the 2000s, a commercial fishing ban has been imposed on this valuable resource since 2003. Following the initial identification of an apicomplexan parasite in the scallops, a long-term surveillance program was established to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the population. The infections were highly prevalent in all shell sizes throughout the study. However, the parasite only impacts mature scallops where they cause severe macroscopic changes, characterized by an extensively diminished and abnormally coloured adductor muscle. A highly significant relationship was observed between infection intensity and gonad and adductor muscle indices. The first four years of the study, were characterized by high infection intensity and very poor condition of the adductor muscle and gonads, whilst during subsequent years, infections gradually decreased and the condition of the scallops improved. Histopathological changes were restricted to the presence of apicomplexan zoites which were widely distributed, causing varying degrees of pathology in all organs. In heavy infections, muscular and connective tissues were totally necrotized, destroying significant parts of numerous organs, especially the adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. The progression of the disease was in good synchrony with the mortality rates and the subsequent decline observed in the scallop stock and recruitment indices. Our findings strongly suggest that the apicomplexan parasite played a major role in the collapse of the Iceland scallop stock in Breidafjordur. In addition to causing mortality, the infections significantly impact gonad development which contributes further to the collapse of the stock in the form of lower larval recruitment. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that this apicomplexan pathogen is causing serious disease outbreaks in other scallop populations. Similar abnormal adductor muscles and the parasite itself have been identified or observed in association with other mass mortality events in several different scallop species and commercial stocks in the northern hemisphere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation
  2. Syafaat MN, Azra MN, Mohamad F, Che-Ismail CZ, Amin-Safwan A, Asmat-Ullah M, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Apr 16;11(4).
    PMID: 33923853 DOI: 10.3390/ani11041146
    This study was carried out to determine the physiological changes (survival, growth, molting cycle, sex differentiation, and gill condition) of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain crablet at different water temperatures of 24, 28 and 32 °C, and ambient temperature of 27 to 30 °C. Thermoregulatory behavior, represented by preferred temperature (29.83 ± SD 2.47 °C), critical thermal minimum (17.33 ± SD 0.58 °C), critical thermal maximum (40 ± SD 0.00 °C), and thermal tolerance interval (22.67 ± SD 0.58 °C), were checked for Crablet 1 stage only (with ambient temperature as acclimation temperature).Both low (24 °C) and high (32 °C) temperatures were associated with lower growth performance, and survival rate (p < 0.05), in comparison with both 28 °C and ambient temperature treatments.Male ratio at low temperaturetreatment (24 °C) was higher (80.09 ± SD 18.86%) than for other treatments (p < 0.05), observed as 44.81 ± D 10.50%, 41.94 ± SD 19.44%, and 76.30 ± SD 5.13% for 28 °C, 32 °C and ambient temperature treatments, respectively. However, there was no significant difference observed between 24 °C, 28 °C, and ambient temperature treatments. Anatomical alterations of gill lamellae of S. paramamosain crablet for both 32 °C, and 24 °C treatments, appeared thinner and paler than at both 28 °C, and ambient temperature treatments. Based on this study, temperature of 28 to 30 °C was recommended as the optimal temperature for the long-term nursery phase of S. paramamosain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation
  3. Ya'cob Z, Low VL, Tan TK, Noor-Izwan A, Lourdes EY, Ramli R, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2021 May;120(5):1555-1561.
    PMID: 33655351 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-021-07087-x
    Sexually anomalous individuals, typically intersexes or gynandromorphs, bear a mixture of male and female traits. Twelve sexually anomalous individuals of the black fly Simulium (Gomphostilbia) trangense Jitklang, Kuvangkadilok, Baimai, Takaoka & Adler were discovered among 49 adults reared from pupae. All 12 sexually anomalous adults were parasitized by mermithid nematodes, although five additional parasitized adults had no overt external anomalies. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that the mermithids, possibly representing a new species, are related to Mesomermis spp., with genetic distances of 5.09-6.87%. All 12 anomalous individuals had female phenotypical traits on the head, thorax, forelegs, midlegs, and claws, but male features on the left and right hind basitarsi. One individual had mixed male and female genitalia. The findings are in accord with the trend that mermithid infections are associated with sexually anomalous adult black flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation/physiology
  4. Waiho K, Fazhan H, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Li S, Zheng H, et al.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY), 2019 Jun;21(3):320-334.
    PMID: 30835008 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-019-09882-1
    Although the sexual dimorphism in terms of gonadal development and gametogenesis of mud crab has been described, the internal regulating mechanism and sex differentiation process remain unclear. A comparative gonadal miRNA transcriptomic study was conducted to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed between testes and ovaries, and potentially uncover miRNAs that might be involved in sex differentiation and gonadal maturation mechanisms of mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). A total of 10 known miRNAs and 130 novel miRNAs were identified, among which 54 were differentially expressed. Target gene prediction revealed a significant enrichment in 30 KEGG pathways, including some reproduction-related pathways, e.g. phosphatidylinositol signalling system and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. Further analysis on six differentially expressed known miRNAs, six differentially expressed novel miRNAs and their reproduction-related putative target genes shows that both miRNAs and putative target genes showed stage-specific expression during gonadal maturation, suggesting their potential regulatory roles in sex differentiation and reproductive development. This study reveals the sex-biased miRNA profile and establishes a solid foundation for understanding the sex differentiation and gonadal maturation mechanisms of S. paramamosain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation
  5. Horie Y, Chihaya Y, Yap CK, Ríos JM, Ramaswamy BR, Uaciquete D
    PMID: 38218565 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2024.109836
    Phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers are used in polymer materials, such as plastic and rubber. It has recently been found that diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), which is considered an environmentally safe non-phthalate plasticizer, potentially acts as a thyroid disruptor in fish. Here, we investigated the sexual hormone effects of DIBA based on the expression levels of genes that respond to endocrine disruption and sexual hormone activity in the livers and gonads, and on gonadal sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka. Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of chgH, vtg1, vtg2, and esr1 was significantly suppressed in the livers of DIBA exposed XX individuals. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of gsdf was significantly upregulated and downregulated in the gonads of XX and XY individuals, respectively. The mRNA expressions of esr1 and esr2b were significantly suppressed by DIBA exposure in the gonads of both XX and XY individuals. These observations suggest that DIBA has potential androgenic activity in Japanese medaka. However, normal testes and ovaries were observed in respective XY and XX medaka after DIBA exposure; therefore, these results suggest that DIBA may have weak androgenic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation
  6. Faiz ZM, Mardhiyyah MP, Mohamad A, Hidir A, Nurul-Hidayah A, Wong L, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2019 Oct;209:106143.
    PMID: 31514941 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.106143
    Understanding Macrobrachium rosenbergii ovarian maturation control at the genome level is an important aspect for increasing larvae production. In this study, an ovarian maturation related gene, M. rosenbergii vWD domain and three Kazal-type domains of a gene (MrvWD-Kazal) have been studied. The MrvWD-Kazal gene was isolated using a rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method and the relative abundances of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA in the ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine and gill were determined by using the quantitative PCR technique. The MrvWD-Kazal gene is composed of 2194 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1998 bp encoding 665 amino acids and has great similarity to the M. nipponense vWD-Kazal gene (91%). The qPCR analyses indicated the relative abundance of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript varied among different stages of ovarian function (P < 0.05), but there were no differences abundance in hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine and gill (P> 0.05). In the ovary, relative abundance of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript gradually increased with ovarian maturation from Stages 1 (Spent; 1.00-fold), to 2 (Proliferative; 3.47-fold) to 3 (Premature; 6.18-fold) and decreased at Stage 4 (Mature; 1.31-fold). Differential relative abundances of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript in the ovary indicate the MrvWD-Kazal protein may have an important function in ovarian maturation of M. rosenbergii. The results of this study also indicate the MrvWD-Kazal is not involved in regulation of the reproductive related function of the hepatopancreas, digestive system (stomach and intestine) and respiratory system (gill).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Differentiation/genetics*
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