A flow-through optical fibre chemical sensor for the determination of Co(II) at trace level using immobilised 2-(4-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) as the reagent phase is proposed. PAR is physically adsorbed onto XAD-7. This method provided a great sensitivity and simplicity with wide linear response range from 1x10(-2) to 1x10(3)ppm and detection limit of 20ppb. This method also showed a reproducible result with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 1.78% and response time of approximately 5min. The response towards Co(II) was also reversible using acidified KCl as the regenerating solution. Interference studies showed that Cr(III) significantly interfered during the determination. Excellent agreement with reference to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) method was achieved when the developed sensor was applied for determination of Co(II) in aqueous samples.
In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.