Engaging students in active learning lies at the center of effective higher education. In medical schools, students' engagement in learning and research has come under increasing attention. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on medical students' perspectives on the engagement in research. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Overall, 14 observational studies (with 17 data sets) were included. In general, many studies did not use the same questionnaires and the outcome measurements were not consistently reported; these presented some difficulties in pooling the results. Whenever data permitted, we performed pooled analysis for the 4 education outcomes. A Bayesian meta-analytical approach was supplemented as a measure of uncertainty. A pooled analysis showed that 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57%-11.07%; I2: 95.2%) of those students who engaged in research (while at the medical school) had positive attitudes toward their research experiences, whereas 49.5% (95% CI: 36.4%-62.7%; I2: 93.4%) had positive attitudes toward the study of medical sciences, 62.3% (95% CI: 46.7%-77.9%; I2: 96.3%) had self-reported changes in their practices, and 64% (95% CI: 30.8%-96.6%; I2: 98.5%) could have published their work. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. We acknowledged the caveats and the merit of the current review. Findings showed that engagement in research resulted in favorable reactions toward research and academic learning. Future well-designed studies using standardized research tools on how to engage students in research are recommended.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an excellent opportunity for students to take responsibility for their learning and to develop a number of cognitive skills. These include identifying problems in the trigger, generating hypotheses, constructing mechanisms, developing an enquiry plan, ranking their hypotheses on the basis of available evidence, interpreting clinical and laboratory findings, identifying their learning needs, and dealing with uncertainty. Students also need to work collaboratively in their group, communicate effectively, and take active roles in the tutorials. Therefore, interaction in the group between students and their tutor is vital to ensure deep learning and successful outcomes. The aims of this paper are to discuss the key principles for successful interaction in PBL tutorials and to highlight the major symptoms of superficial learning and poor interactions. This comprises a wide range of symptoms for different group problems, including superficial learning. By early detection of such problems, tutors will be able to explore actions with the group and negotiate changes that can foster group dynamics and enforce deep learning.
Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p
Alcohol addiction is a social problem faced by every country worldwide. Young people are more at risk of this menace. In spite of a clear knowledge and message about the effects of alcohol on individual health and social fabric, it is hard to curb the overuse of this beverage. In the present study, we compared the outcome of a survey using Comprehensive effects of Alcohol (CEOA) in two private Medical institutions in two Asian countries, viz. KMC, Mangalore, India (n=180) and AIMST, Kedah, Malaysia (n=170). The study included both males and female students. The result suggested that the negative reinforcement responses were rated higher in both the study groups. But those who have tasted alcohol before had a higher rating that alcohol may cause positive reinforcement. Both groups of respondents showed similar trend suggesting that the alcohol expectancies are similar in Indian students and Malaysian students. From the results we could conclude that the responses of the two sample groups were comparable to each other. While the male respondents were inclined show higher affinity towards acceptance of alcohol females are very much less so. However, the respondents of both groups appeared to be well aware of the negative aspects of alcohol. Importantly previous exposure to alcohol intake dramatically changed the perception and showed increased inclination towards alcoholism. This study thus provides an important clue to the clinician, counselors and parents regarding the importance of guiding the young people about the alcoholism.
Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations.
The global statistics reveal that at least one in every five women experiences rape or attempted rape during her lifetime. Rape myths encompass a set of (false) beliefs. Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization than other age groups. Rape myths among health care providers may have a negative influence on proper care of the victims. A total of 422 medical undergraduates of both sexes, studying at two Malaysian Institutes took part in the study. A validated questionnaire used in an earlier study was used for the present study, with a slight modification of scoring system. The age range of medical students was 17 to 34 years: mean +/- SD of men and women, were 20.6 +/- 2.1 and 20.3 +/- 2 respectively. Only about 19% of women and 11% of men had a very good positive attitude. Nearly 1/3 of women and 1/2 of men had a more negative attitude. On the whole the average total score of women was significantly higher (p=0.0004) than men. Nearly 50% of candidates with a village background carried more negative attitude. Violence against women is a significant public health problem. The major revelation of the present study is that only less than 20% of the medical undergraduates had a more positive attitude towards rape. Introduction of courses on 'sexual violence' in medical curriculum is likely to increase a) awareness, b) skills in management, c) in providing support and care for the victims and d) in implementing preventive actions.
Portfolio writing is a method of encouraging reflective learning among professionals. Although portfolio-based learning is popular among educators, not many studies have been done to determine students' perceptions of portfolio as a learning tool. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 143 medical students to find out their perceptions of the portfolio as a learning tool. A majority of the students felt that the portfolio is a good learning tool. However, they also perceived that it is stressful and time-consuming to develop a proper portfolio. The study indicates that students need appropriate guidance from the academic staff for the system to succeed.
A cross-sectional survey of 400 medical students of multicultural backgrounds at the University of Malaya was conducted to understand their attitudes towards euthanasia and factors related to medical decisions and ethical reasoning concerning the prolongation of life, the right to die and euthanasia. The student respondents completed self-administered questionnaires that comprised of twelve questions with multiple stems addressing personal perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and decisions about euthanasia and the relief of suffering. The majority of respondents (52%) were for the withdrawal of active therapy in a patient suffering from a terminal painful disease while 48% of them were against it. Seventy-one percent of the students involved in the study were against the idea of active euthanasia i.e. the administration of a lethal injection. However, 27% of the respondents felt that there was a moral justification to assist patients to die. Thirty-two percent of the respondents favoured the legalization of euthanasia in Malaysia while 67% of them were strongly against it. The majority (61%) of respondents would not practice euthanasia as a doctor nor would they have performed on themselves if or when it became legal. The main issue surrounding euthanasia that concerned the respondents was the misuse of it by unethical practitioners and they felt that further debate on the matter was essential, both within the local and international communities.
One hundred and twenty-eight medical students who had experienced a traditional-style preclinical curriculum completed three self-report questionnaires. Using factor analysis of students' responses this study explores interactions between study orientation, preferences for different kinds of learning environment, and evaluations of the physiology course. Such interactions can provide insight into the reasons why students fail to adopt effective learning strategies. Although many students had the intention to understand, they did not adopt a deep approach. Achievement motivation was strong, test anxiety high, and the course was perceived to be competitive. The meaning orientation merged with the achieving orientation; students were thus performance rather than task oriented. These students perceived the course to have been challenging, as did students within the reproducing orientation and who had 'surface' preferences. Students within the non-academic orientation had difficulty coping with the course. The findings suggest that conventional teaching and assessment methods are preventing students from developing appropriate criteria and internal standards for evaluating performance. An illusion of comprehension may prevent students from seeing the need to adopt more effective learning strategies and cause 'good' students with the ability to adopt a deep approach to abort the pursuit of deep understanding. Students' preferences and evaluations of teaching and assessment indicate that students within the different learning orientations have different educational needs. The implications for instruction and evaluation are discussed.
This study deals with personality variables of medical students in relation to their academic success in the preclinical stage. One hundred and one students completed the 16PF Questionnaire at the beginning of their medical course and the scores were analysed in relation to their marks obtained at the end of the 2-year preclinical stage. This study shows that the 16PF Questionnaire can be a useful instrument for identifying personality variables in candidates who are likely to have academic problems and those who are likely to do well in the preclinical stage of a medical course. Students of urban origin and the eldest in the family performed better in their preclinical years. Performance was not related to sex, ethnic group, family size of entrance qualification into medicine. Personality variables of being enthusiastic, venturesome, self-opinionated, imaginative, experimenting, resourceful and driven correlate positively with performance, whereas being self-assured has negative correlation. Problem students were more reserved, emotionally less stable and more apprehensive than non-problem students.
The purpose of this study is to explore the types of problem students that clinical teachers encounter in clinical settings. A questionnaire developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges that lists a variety of types of problem students was completed by 466 clinicians at the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSOM) and 98 Malaysian clinicians from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). In addition, 120 medical students from UKM completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. Both the faculty and student questionnaires asked the respondent to identify the frequency of a given problem type. The faculty was also asked to estimate how difficult it was to evaluate a specific problem. In general, there was strong agreement among the North American and Malaysian faculty on the frequency and difficulty of the 24 types of problem students listed. There were some notable differences, such as Malaysian teachers perceiving the "shy" student more frequently than their North American counterparts who rated the student with deficits in knowledge more frequently. However, the overall similarity in the rankings suggest that clinical teachers face similar types of problems, independent of cultural differences and institutional differences.
This study was conducted to asses the future physicians' habits, knowledge and attitude towards smoking. These factors influence the credibility of future Malaysian physicians as advocators and treatment providers. A cross sectional study was carried out among medical students at the Medical Faculty, University Malaya. Knowledge on smoking was evaluated on the total scores for knowledge questions, with one point and zero for each correct and incorrect answer respectively, to a maximum of six potential points. Attitude towards smoking was measured by summation of scores on attitude items; each item was scored from five points for "against smoking" and one point for "favourable to smoking". The possible score ranged from 10 to 50. The response rate was 79.4%. Prevalence of overall smokers was 4.4%. The mean knowledge score among smokers (4.30 +/- 2.17) was significantly lower than nonsmokers (5.19 +/- 1.28). The mean attitude score was higher among non-smokers (44.30 +/- 6.54) than smokers (39.86 +/- 10.93). The result from this study showed that smoking prevalence was lower compared to previous studies done in Malaysia.
Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL) course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1) understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2) discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3) provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios.