The indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test done with turkey red cells was applied to 173 serum samples obtained from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. A crude extract of adult worms of the rat filaria, Breinlia booliati, was used as the antigen. When a titer of 1:16 was taken as negative, positive IHA test rates in sera from microfilaria-negative persons in endemic areas, microfilaremic cases, and patients with clinical filariasis were 13%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Results of the IHA test correlated well with results obtained with the indirect fluorescent technique.
The indirect immunofluorescence test using sonicated microfilariae of Brugia malayi has been evaluated on 173 sera from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and B. malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. In the microfilaria-negative group, without signs and symptoms of filariasis 55/62 sera (89%) had titers of 1:16 and less. In the microfilaremic groups and in the amicrofilaremic cases with clinical filariasis, all the sera tested were positive, with the antibody titers ranging generally from 1:16 - 1:256. Cross-reaction tests were done on 16 samples of onchocerciasis sera from West Africa using sonicated antigen as well as antigen-coated CNB1-activated sepharose. Antibody titers were detected in all the sera. The usefulness of the sonicated microfilarial antigen in serodiagnosis of filariasis is discussed.
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.
The lymphatic filarial parasites which affect about 90 million people worldwide have similar host-parasite relationships in man. They are all able to survive, reproduce and cause chronic infections if they can successfully evade the protective responses of the host. Studies to investigate the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of the infection even among those living in similar endemic areas and with presumed equal exposure to infective larvae, have been hampered by the lack of animal models showing similar host-parasite responses. The recent use of the nude mouse infected with Brugia spp, and the leaf-monkey (Presbytis spp) infected with B. malayi or Wuchereria spp for the study of immune responses and the associated pathology of these infections, has elucidated some of the host protective immune responses as well as the associated immunopathological reactions. The successfully entrenched parasite elicits minimal reactions and pathology, but with the onset of effective host responses, whether assisted by chemotherapy, development of protective immunity or both, severe inflammatory responses may occur. The role of such immune mediated response in determining subsequent pathology will probably be dependent on the frequency and duration of these episodes, but these have yet to be defined. Prenatal and perinatal sensitization by filarial antigens are postulated to result in tolerance and/or modification of immune responses to subsequent infections. A role for genetic predisposition to certain clinical outcomes, for example, the development of elephantiasis, has been postulated but needs further study. Advances have also been achieved in defining those parasite antigens/products involved in eliciting or suppressing protective and other immune responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease responsible for morbidity and disability that affects 1.2 billion people worldwide, mainly the poor communities. Currently, filarial antigen testing is the method of choice for the detection of bancroftian filariasis, and to date, there are two commonly used tests. In the present study, a recently reported recombinant monoclonal antibody (5B) specific to BmSXP filarial antigen was used in developing an ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftian filariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 124 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with all sera from microfilaremic bancroftian filariasis patients (n = 34). It also showed 100% diagnostic specificity when tested with sera from 50 healthy individuals and 40 patients with other parasitic diseases. The developed assay using the novel 5B recombinant monoclonal antibody could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftian filariasis.
At the end phase of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, antibody testing may have a role in decision-making for bancroftian filariasis-endemic areas. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of BLF Rapid™, a prototype immunochromatographic IgG4-based test using BmSXP recombinant protein, for detection of bancroftian filariasis. The test was evaluated using 258 serum samples, comprising 96 samples tested at Universiti Sains Malaysia (in-house) and 162 samples tested independently at three international laboratories in the USA and India, and two laboratories in Malaysia. The independent testing involved 99 samples from Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria or antigen positive individuals and 63 samples from people who were healthy or had other infections. The in-house evaluation showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The independent evaluations showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 84-100% and 100% specificity (excluding non-lymphatic filarial infections). BLF Rapid has potential as a surveillance diagnostic tool to make "Transmission Assessment Survey"-stopping decisions and conduct post-elimination surveillance.