A report is given of 60 cases of bronchopneumonia in infants treated with Aureomycin during a period of 4 months, Aureomycin was given orally in a mixture. Dosage depended on the severity of the infection, the age and weight of the patient. The results of this series are compared with a series of penicillin treated cases and showed a distinct improvement. The cure rate of Aureomycin treated cases is about 70%.
In the staining of leucocytes successful use has be en made in this Department of the method described by Field (1941) in the demonstration of malarial parasites in thick films. The methylene blue solution is made up according to the formula of Hitch (quoted by Field). In the staining of these films the procedure of Field is modified so that the red cells are left intact and stained. The method as carried out is as follows. The two solutions of stain are mixed as required in the proportion of 6 drops of the methylene blue solution to 2 drops of the eosin solution and with the addition of 10 drops of buffered water at about pH 6.4. The mixture is then thoroughly shaken. The blood film is fixed with pure, acetone free, methyl alcohol for 10 seconds. The alcohol is then run off and the stain mixture applied to the slide with a pipette. Staining is continued for 10 minutes after which time the film is washed by waving about in a beaker of the buffered water at pH 6.4 for a few seconds. This method stains the leukocytes very clearly and is not subject to the several difficulties in using alcoholic solutions especially in the tropics.
1. Using ordinary clinical thermometers resting oral temperatures were taken in 4,463 schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 20 years. 2. From 2,500 readings in clinically healthy and apyrexial girls charts were made to show temperature variations. 3. It was demonstrated that in the age group 6-10 the mean temperature was 99.5 F. That in the age group 10-14 the mean temperature was 99.3 F and in the age group 14-20 the mean temperature was 99.1 F. 4. For all age groups the majority fell within the limit of 98.9 – 100 F. 5. It is not uncommon to encounter a temperature of over 100º and up to 100.8º of no pathological significance. 6. Temperature readings are not a reliable guide in the clinical assessment of children unless the above considerations are borne in mind.
MeSH terms: Female; Singapore; Students; Temperature
1. Observations on filariasis made during medical travels in the Malay Peninsula are described. 2. The tentative diagnosis of endemic filariasis was made when cases typical of filarial elephantiasis were found in members of the indigenous population who have never resided in a previously known filariasis area, and was confirmed by finding microfilariae of Wuchereria malayi in bloods from that population. 3. Endemic filariasis has previously been reported associated with jungle swamp along the lower reaches of some of the larger rivers, and in certain coastal ricefield areas. It is reported in this paper in undeveloped inland areas of Perak, Pahang and Selangor, far distant from the previously described foci. This data has been summarized in maps and an Appendix. 4. In most inland areas where a search has been made, it has been possible to find evidence of endemic filariasis and sometimes the parasite rate has been over 50%. 5. The geographical distribution of the disease has not yet been defined, but is certainly more extensive than that described in this paper. 6. Infection probably takes place at an altitude of 1,500 feet in mountain valleys in Malaya.
1. Observations have been quoted which mention the existence of goiter in remote inland areas of Malaya. 2. 39.5% of 618 Malays and 40.8% of 710 aborigines from inland areas were found on examination to have visible thyroid glands. A high incidence of thyroid enlargement was found in almost all areas where these observations were made, on a wide range of Geological Formations. 3. In the seaside populations studied, the low incidence of ‘visible’ thyroid glands (2/184) is typical of that of other ‘goiter free’ areas. 4. Iodine estimations have been carried out on seven water samples from rivers draining inland areas where thyroid data have been collected, and gave values of 0.2 to 0.6 parts of iodine per thousand million. The development of goiter is to be expected when the iodine content is so low. 5. High calcium content of waters cannot be important in causing goiter in Malaya. 6. The availability of dried seafoods is thought to be an important factor in goiter prevention in Malaya. Four dried marine foods contained 360 to 1,340 parts of iodine per thousand million.
A brief review of the literature of carcinoid tumour is given and a case of primary carcinoid tumour of the mesentery is reported – there being only three other cases of a carcinoid, in a similar situation, recorded in the literature.
Report on 174 cases of tetanus neonatorum collected between 1946 and 1950 in the General Hospital, Singapore. There is a marked reduction in the incidence, which is attributed to a better maternity service. The results of treatment are bad – with a mortality of 90% of cases.
LABOURERS in factories in South Malaya who cut up pineapples by hand for canning invariably show an abnormality of those parts of the body which are exposed to slight pressure and pineapple juice, notably the palmar surfaces of the fingertips and the periphery of the palms. At the beginning of the canning season, the left hand, which comes more into contact with the fruit than the knife-holding hand, becomes sore and small superficial raw areas on the fingertips are often seen. Within several days, however, these heal, and the skin ceases to be sore. The labourers state that this tolerance to the pineapple juice is due to the development of an abnormality of the skin, which in the affected area becomes bluish-white and so smooth that fingerprints may be completely lost. Deep cracks are sometimes seen in the region of the skin creases. These often stay raw and bleeding for a long time, and show no clinical signs of infection, presumably because of removal of dead tissues by enzymatic action.