This paper from the Malaria Research Division, Institute for Medical Research, Federation of Malaya, summarizes the results of studies on the suppression of malaria by synthetic drugs. Such studies began 25 years ago, and, in spite of interruptions in the work due to the Japanese invasion and due to banditry, studies are reported here on the effects of giving mepacrine in doses of 0.3 gm. once a week; proguanil in doses of 0.1 gm., 0.2 gm., 0.25 gm. and 0.3 gm. once a week; chloroquine in doses of 0.25 gm. once a week; and amodiaquin [camoquin] in dosos of 0.4 grn. base once a month. The populations upon whom the studies were made were labourers and their families-Tamils, Malays, and Javanese, on 3 estates in Selangor, and Negri Sembilan, Federation of Malaya, between December, 1946, and February, 1949. Each population was divided into 3 comparable sections, 2 of which received test drugs, while the third received a placebo and so formed a control group. Drugs were issued under the supervision of a Malaria Research Officer. Those people who developed fever wore supervised and treated by a hospital assistant resident on each estate. Thick blood films from such patients were studied. Parasite and spleen surveys were done every 3 months. Malaria transmission was assessed by the incidence of malaria in unprotected infants, who were not given suppressive drugs until after their first attack; and by the results of mosquito dissections. The commonest vectors woreA. letifer, A. maoulatus and A. umbrosus. The results of the tests of suppressivo drugs are shown in a series of tables, charts, and diagrams. Malarial transmission was considered light during the period of these trials. Chloroquino 0.25 gm. base once weekly proved the most effective drug in suppressing malarial attacks. There was little difference between proguanil in various doses, or between proguanil and mepacrine, but these two drugs were much cheaper than chloroquine or amodiaquin. All the drugs reduced the parasite and spleen rates. No significant toxic symptoms were observed with any of the drugs used. S. Bell.
A new Salmonella type is described, for which the name Salmonella seremban is proposed; it has the antigenic formula IX, XIII, XII 2, XIIa; i=l, 3, 5. It was the apparent cause of a number of human cases of food poisoning at Seremban, Malaya.
A fulminating extension of rabies-which has been enzootic in northern Malaya since 1924-occurred in Kuala Lumpur in April 1952. The outbreak was suppressed by the compulsory mass vaccination of dogs, stringent legislation, and intensive stray-dog destruction. Similar measures are being employed in the current campaign, the aim of which is the complete eradication of the disease.From an average annual incidence of 112 confirmed canine cases prior to 1952-when a total of 198 cases was reported-the incidence fell to 15 cases (all in unvaccinated dogs) for the period January-November 1953, during the last 5(1/2) months of which no case in either animals or man was reported. It is considered that the extensive publicity campaign and strict enforcement of the control measures have contributed measurably to the present improved position.Statistics relating to confirmed cases in dogs previously vaccinated with (a) phenolized 20% brain-tissue suspension vaccine (buffalo origin) and (b) chicken-embryo vaccine (Flury strain) are quoted and their probable significance in favour of the latter under Malayan conditions is discussed. The hypothesis that the development of rabies may, in many instances, have been blocked by the vaccine is advanced.The plan for a pan-Federation compulsory vaccination campaign in 1954, to consolidate the 1952-3 improvements, is outlined.
The author summarizes the information given by 13 governments-Afghanistan, Burma, Ceylon, China, India, Indonesia, Malaya, Netherlands New Guinea, Philippines, Portuguese India, Sarawak, Thailand, and Viet Nam-on their existing and proposed malaria-control programmes in response to a questionnaire prepared by WHO for discussion at the First Asian Malaria Conference, which was held in Bangkok in September 1953.Although in late 1953 nearly 46.5 million of the 271 million people living in malarious regions were protected against the disease, more than 224 million others were still unprotected.It is noted that residual-insecticide spraying-the basis of most campaigns-has significantly reduced spleen- and parasite-rates; that the minor opposition to spraying initially encountered in some places quickly disappeared as the benefits became apparent; that malaria control has resulted in general improvements in public health and has promoted socio-economic development; that anopheline resistance to the insecticides used has not been observed; that ten governments voiced the need for indoctrination of public officials concerning malaria control; and that there is a trend among governments to make financial provision for long-term malaria-control schemes.