Browse publications by year: 1956

  1. Clein L
    Lancet, 1956;267:289.
    MeSH terms: Leptospirosis
  2. Drummoni WAD
    Lancet, 1956;267:297.
    MeSH terms: Leptospirosis; London
  3. Needham R
    Topics: Divorce, Cousins, Kinship, Spouses, Children, Siblings, Tribal names, Husbands, Raffles, Ethnography
    MeSH terms: Humans
  4. Br Med J, 1956;1:1051-1052.
  5. Abdul Wahab A
    Br Med J, 1956;1:986.
    MeSH terms: Bites and Stings; Cortisone
  6. Heisch RB
    Br Med J, 1956;2:669.
    DOI: 10.1136/bmj.2.4994.669
    The zoonoses, which are defined as infections of man naturally acquired from other vertebrates, are treated as a problem in ecology. This entails studying the interrelation between man, animals, a causative organism, the environment, and sometimes arthropods. Such an approach is holistic or synecological—wholes being regarded as more important than parts. Holism is a dynamic not a static conception. The evolution of the zoonoses is discussed, particularly in relation to plague, relapsing fever, and leishmaniasis. The most important reservoirs of zoonoses and other parasitic infections are usually resistant or relatively insusceptible animals rather than highly susceptible ones. Plague and Chagas's disease illustrate this. Resistant and unduly susceptible animals occupy different “niches“ in nature. By “niche“ is meant the place of an animal in its biotic environment. Zoonoses often have a “focal distribution“ in nature. Thus wild rodents infected with plague may occur in “ pockets,” and the vector mites of scrub typhus congregate in “typhus islands.” An unstable environment often favours the transference of zoonoses to man and animals. Examples are the plague-infected plain of Rongai, in Kenya, the typhus-infected forest clearings in Malaya, and the yellow-fever infected forest edges in Uganda. Ecologically unstable areas are termed “ ecotones.” Zoonoses can also be transmitted in or near relatively stable sites such as huts, rodent burrows, caves, and termite hills. These are known as “habitat niches.” Animals and arthropods in a community are linked by food, and the importance of what are known as “food chains“ and “food cycles“ is discussed in relation to the transference of zoonotic infections from one host to another. Reference is also made to the fluctuations in numbers of various animals in nature, and how this affects the incidence of zoonotic disease. Certain highly susceptible rodents are periodically decimated by plague; this breaks the link with man, and human infections cease for the time being. © 1956, British Medical Journal Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
    MeSH terms: Plague; Scrub Typhus; Chagas Disease; Zoonoses
    J R Army Med Corps, 1956 Jan;102(1):70-2.
    PMID: 13307652
    MeSH terms: Aviation*; Malaysia; Military Medicine*; Military Personnel*; Naval Medicine*
  8. De Zulueta J
    Bull World Health Organ, 1956;15(3-5):651-71.
    PMID: 13404442
    A general malaria survey of Sarawak and Brunei, two of the territories of British Borneo, is described. Contrary to what was expected in view of the climate and the general conditions, the prevalence of malaria in Sarawak and Brunei proved, on the average, to be low. The coastal areas were found to be practically free from the disease, although epidemics have occurred there in recent years. Malaria was found to be endemic in the hilly and mountainous interior. In fact, topography proved to be an important factor in malaria prevalence, the spleen- and parasite-rates, generally speaking, being higher the more abrupt the country. Differences were also observed in the prevalence among the various racial groups, but these were considered to be due to different habits and customs rather than to race itself.Entomological studies showed that Anopheles leucosphyrus Dönitz was the main malaria vector in the interior of Sarawak, A. barbirostris playing a secondary role. A. leucosphyrus balabacensis had already been recognized as the malaria vector in Brunei.The favourable results of a first field trial of residual insecticides are mentioned and plans for a nation-wide malaria-control programme are briefly outlined.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anopheles*; Brunei; Humans; Insecticides*; Malaria/epidemiology*; Malaysia; Prevalence
  9. De Zulueta J, Lachance F
    Bull World Health Organ, 1956;15(3-5):673-93.
    PMID: 13404443
    A first experiment on malaria control in the interior of Borneo by spraying with residual insecticides is described. The work was carried out in the isolated, sparsely populated valleys of the Baram River and its tributary, the Tinjar, in northern Sarawak. The experimental area was divided into three parts: a DDT test area, where a 75% suspension of wettable powder was applied at the rate of 2 g of DDT per m(2) of surface; a BHC test area, where a 50% suspension of wettable powder was applied at the rate of 0.10 g of gamma isomer per m(2); and a check area.Entomological investigations made before the spraying operations were started showed that Anopheles leucosphyrus Dönitz, 1901 was the main malaria vector in both the test and the check areas. Out of a total of 7568 A. leucosphyrus dissected, 30 gland infections were detected-a sporozoite-rate of 0.40%. A. barbirostris was found to be a secondary vector throughout the experimental area.THE RESULTS OF INSECTICIDE SPRAYING WERE SATISFACTORY: in the DDT test area, the spleen-rate fell from 51.8% to 25.1%, and the parasite-rate from 35.6% to 1.6%, in 21 months, and a similar reduction in the rates was observed in the BHC test area. In the check area, the spleen- and parasite-rates rose during the period of observations. It is considered that if such a degree of control can be obtained in 21 months, complete eradication can be expected in the near future.Although BHC spraying proved effective, the fact that it has to be repeated every three months makes it impracticable in the interior of Sarawak, where communications are very poor and difficulties of transport very great. DDT spraying, which need only be done twice a year, is therefore to be preferred. The cost of the DDT operations-US$ 0.45 per person protected per year-is comparatively high, owing to the difficulty of communications and to the necessity for spraying not only the village "longhouses", but also the temporary shelters which the semi-nomadic people in the interior of Sarawak build each year in the rice-fields.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anopheles*; Borneo; Costs and Cost Analysis*; DDT/pharmacology*; Forecasting*; Housing*; Humans; Insecticides*; Malaria*; Malaysia; Culicidae*
    Lancet, 1956 Jan 07;270(6906):13-6.
    PMID: 13279151
    MeSH terms: Animals; Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*; Disease*; Ethnic Groups*; Humans; Leptospirosis/therapy*; Malaysia; Military Personnel*; Culicidae*; Penicillins/therapeutic use*
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1956 Feb;59(2):23-7.
    PMID: 13307708
    MeSH terms: Animals; Humans; Malaria/prevention & control*; Malaysia; Culicidae*; Work*
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):191-231.
    PMID: 13347453
    MeSH terms: Animals; Lindane/pharmacology*; Humans; Insecticides/pharmacology*; Malaria/prevention & control*; Culicidae*
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):232-45.
    PMID: 13347454
    MeSH terms: Aedes*; Animals; Data Collection*; Culicidae*; Airports*
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):246-50.
    PMID: 13347455
    MeSH terms: Humans; Lymphoma*; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin*; Mandible*; Mandibular Neoplasms*; Neoplasms*
  15. STOCK FE
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):251-61.
    PMID: 13347456
    MeSH terms: Humans; Peptic Ulcer*; Thinking*
  16. BROWNE J
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Mar;10(3):262-3.
    PMID: 13347457
    MeSH terms: Antihypertensive Agents*; Humans; Parkinson Disease/etiology*; Reserpine*; Parkinsonian Disorders*; Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/adverse effects*
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