SO2-fumigation experiments were conducted with plants of pea (Pisum sativum) and corn (Zea mays) recognized to be, respectively, sensitive and tolerant to the gas. Accumulation of inorganic sulfur in the tissues revealed that the pea takes up considerably greater amounts of SO2 than corn. Porometer measurements and transpiration coefficients show that this greater SO2 uptake is partly related to the lower leaf diffusion resistance of peas. Additional internal sinks for SO2 uptake are discussed in order to give a complete explanation of the differential SO2 uptake of the two species.
Methyl esters from the triglyceride fraction of the neutral lipids of natural rubber latex were found by gas liquid chromatography to contain about 90% of a furanoid acid. Spectroscopic analysis identified the acid as 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid.
Sera from 243 donors belonging to the four main ethnic groups in West Malaysia (Orang Asli, Malays, Chinese and Indians) were tested, using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis. Almost 20% reacted positively at dilutions of 1:64 or higher and eight among the Orang Asli and Malays gave the highest titres of 1:256. Prevalence was highest in the Orang Asli and lowest in Chinese. 22 sera also reacted positively to Toxoplasma, whether due to polyparasitism or cross-reaction is, as yet, unknown.
MeSH terms: Antibodies/analysis; Humans; Malaysia; Sarcocystis/immunology*; Toxoplasma/immunology; Continental Population Groups
In a study of Malaysians of different racial groups, 1,510 sera (908 from Malays, 371 from Chinese and 231 from Indians) were identified for their protease inhibitor (Pi) types. The gene frequencies for the alleles PiM, PiS and PiX in Malays were, respectively, 0.979, 0.015, and 0.007. In Chinese, the frequencies were 0.981, 0.019 and 0.000, and in Indians they were 0.976, 0.24, and 0.000. It is interesting that the usually rare PiX type is found in appreciable frequency in the Malays. Two different types with unusual behavior and obscure origin were also found.
1. Electrophoretic variations of 9 erythrocyte proteins, coded by a separate gene locus each, were analysed in and among the 5 Malayan species of Rattus belonging to the subgenus Lenothrix. 2. The average proportion of loci heterozygous per individual for the taxa analysed is 0.037. 3. The results obtained confirm the specific status of the 5 taxa studied. With respect to the relative affinities among the species studied, the present results could resolve the discrepancies between conclusions based on morphological evidence and those based on cytological evidence. 4. The 5 species of Rattus studied may be assigned to 4 groups and comparative data suggest that these groups are relatively distantly related to one another.
A new metronidazole derivative, Tiberal (Ro-07-0207, Roche Laboratories), was evaluated in 22 children with Giardia lamblia infection. Seven patients received an oral dose of 1 g twice daily for one day; the remaining 15 patients received a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Parasitological cure was noted in all 22 patients. Significant side effects were observed only in those children who received the drug at the higher dosage regime. The present study also confirms the findings of other authors that a mucosal imprint method is more reliable than examination of stools, duodenal juice or jejunal biopsy material for the detection of G. lamblia infection.
Two communities of Orang Asli (aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia were observed for evidence of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection over periods of 1-8 mo. Sequential sera were examined for antibody by the indirect immunofluorescence test. The incidence of infection in the two self-selected populations in the two communities was calculated to be 3.9% per month and 3.2% per month.
Eleven pairs of schistosomes, indistinguishable from the classical Schistosoma japonicum, were found in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis) taken near Ranau in North Borneo. The new locality is within the recorded range of the species which extends from Japan, China, Taiwan, and Philippines through Southeast Asia to the Celebes.
812 West Malaysian Orang Asli belonging to four ethnic groups were surveyed for adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 126.96.36.199) using starch gel electrophoresis. Only the common ADA1 and ADA2 alleles were found, with the frequencies of the latter being 0.025, 0.103, 0.115 and 0.028 in the Semai, Semelai, Temuan, and Jakun groups, respectively. A new 'breeding genetic distance' was applied to these gene frequencies and the Semelai and Temuan were found to be more closely related to each other, and to have considerably more evolutionary flexibility on this scale of 'micro-evolution' than the other two groups. The Semai and Jakun were more similar to each other on the basis of these ADA gene frequencies.
Most current models of human population structure view migration solely as a deterministic force reducing the variance in gene frequencies among the local colonies of a subdivided population. By an empirical example and through simulation experiments, it is shown that migration structured along kinship lines (by analogy to the lineal or 'kinship' effect) does not always reduce the variances of gene frequencies arising through intergenerational random genetic drift. Thus populations experiencing high rates of migration may not be genetically homogenous.
The first living patient with a Schistosoma japonicum-type infection who presented with the nephrotic syndrome is reported in detail. It is not clear whether the nephrotic syndrome was due to the schistosome infection or to the deposition of hepatitis B antigen and antibody complexes. This is the tenth case of schistosomiasis reported from aborigines in Malaysia and a sylvatic source of infection is suggested.
Previous reports of melioidosis in Sabah are reviewed and a detailed account of a case, presenting as prostatitis, in a 40-year-old British male is given. The history suggested that the organism, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, was transmitted by a fly which entered the eye. Diagnosis was delayed and treatment presented some difficulty, the organism being relatively insensitive to amplicillin and gentamicin. Co-trimoxazole was the most effective, followed by minocycline. Cure was eventually achieved and after four years the patient was fit and normal, except for sterility.
New data are presented concerning the relationship between NPC and HLA antigens among Chinese. When attention is confined to newly diagnosed cases, it can be shown that, apart from the increased risk associated with the joint occurrence of A2 and B-Sin 2, there is also an increased risk associated with BW17 and a decrease in risk associated with A11. Among long-term survivors, however, BW17 is appreciably decreased, whereas A2 in the absence of B-Sin 2 or BW17 is increased. Among Malays, a non-Chinese group, there is an excess among NPC patients of a locus A blank, a blank which is probably associated with the AW19 complex.
MeSH terms: Asia; Asia, Southeastern; Behavior; Community Health Workers*; Developing Countries; Economics*; Education; Family Planning Services; Goals*; Health Planning*; Malaysia; Mass Media; Motivation*; Organization and Administration; Population Control*; Psychology; Public Policy; Rural Population; Sex Education*; Socioeconomic Factors; Women's Rights*
The sequence of events leading up to the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation were studied in two tropical legumes, Centrosema pubescens Benth, and Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Parameters measured included fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll and leghaemoglobin contents, as well as the activities of NADH-nitrate reductase (EC 188.8.131.52), and nitrogenase (nitric-oxide reductase-EC 184.108.40.206) in plants that were inoculated with suitable rhizobia or which were watered with potassium nitrate. Dry weight and photosynthetic activity of both species followed the sigmoidal pattern which is characteristic of most plants. Growth was little different in either a qualitative or quantitative sense whether nitrogen was supplied as nitrate or through dinitrogen fixation. Although the biochemical sequence of events was dependent on the limiting sensitivities of the individual assays used, the data suggest that nitrate reductase is the first measurable enzymatic activity in the nodules (and roots), followed by acetylene reduction and leghaemoglobin in that order. It is possible therefore, that low levels of symbiotic nitrogen fixation occur in the nodules in the absence of leghaemoglobin. Nitrate reductase activity in C. pubescens nodules was negatively exponentially correlated with nitrogenase activity of the same nodules, suggesting a changing metabolism in old nodules. These data are discussed in terms of environmental and physical factors known to control nitrogen fixation.