Malaysia has a large variety of traditional medical systems that are a direct reflection of the wide ethnic diversity of its population. These can be grouped into four basic varieties, namely, traditional "native," traditional Chinese, traditional Indian and modern medicine, examples of which are described. In spite of the great inroads made by modern medicine, the traditional systems are firmly established. Patients move from one system to another or use several systems simultaneously. The integration of the traditional Malay birth attendant into the health team is described. The forces influencing the development, acceptance and integration of the medical systems is discussed.
MeSH terms: Cultural Characteristics; Female; Health Services/trends*; Health Services, Indigenous/trends; Humans; Malaysia; Medicine, Ayurvedic; Medicine, East Asian Traditional; Midwifery; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Pregnancy
Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani Betterton, 1976 has been reported from four species of rodent hosts: Echinosorex gymnurus (Raffles): Rattus whiteheadi (Thos); R. muelleri (Jentink) and Callosciurus notatus (Boddaert). A comparison of trematodes recovered from these hosts revealed patterns of host-induced morphological variation taking place. Because N. (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani shows little generic difference from Fibricola intermedius (Pearson, 1959) Sudarikov, 1960 it is transferred to the genus Fibricola and is now designated Fibricola ramachandrani (Betterton, 1976) Palmieri, Krishnasamy and Sullivan.
Purified schizonts (6--10 nuclei) and membranes of schizont-infected erythrocytes from the Malaysian and Philippine strain of Plasmodium knowlesi are analyzed immunochemically using immunoglobulin of rhesus monkey hyperimmune sera against schizonts and of sera from naturally immune monkeys. The anti-schizont Ig identifies less than 20 immune components in Triton X-100-solubilized schizonts and membranes of infected cells. Of these antigens, 9 (component 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, and 20) are common to parasites and membranes of infected erythrocytes, and 12 (2A,B, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13p, 14, 16A,B, 19 A,Bp, 21, 22p, and 23) are predominantly found in the parasite; 4 components (13i, 19A,Bi, 22A, B, and 24) are unique to the membrane of infected erythrocytes. Only three parasite-specific components (1, 13, and 19) are exposed on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes as revealed by both lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination and extensive absorption of anti-schizont Ig using intact infected erythrocytes. Two plasmodium-specific antigens (1 and 13) on the surface of infected erythrocytes are recognized by sera of rhesus monkeys rendered naturally immune against P. knowlesi infections and, therefore, represent antigens in vivo. Analyses of schizonts and membranes of parasitized erythrocytes of the two different strains of P. knowlesi yields only some minor quantitative, but no qualitative differences when analyzed with both types of antisera. Importantly, components 1 and 13 appear identical in both strains.
148 patients, 79 males and 60 females were seen in 1978 at Medical Unit Universiti Kebangsaan Kuala Lumpur. For majority of the patients the attacks of asthma begin at an early age. History of allergies were found in majority of the patients. Family history of asthma was noted in about 50%. Of the allergens that triggers of an attack of asthma, household dusts, rhinitis and pollen tops the list. Of the food the common allergens were shrimps, eggs and crabs. Most of the above allergens can be avoided or counteracted.
Study site: Medical Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UKM unit), Malaysia
Malaysia has a large variety of traditional medical systems that are a direct reflection of the wide ethnic diversity of its population. These can be grouped into four basic varieties, namely, traditional bumiputra ("native"), traditional Chinese, traditional Indian and modern medicine. The Malay, lban and Kadazan traditional medical systems are briefly described. It is noted that despite the great inroads made by modern medicine, the traditional systems are firmly established. Patients move from one system to another or use several systems simultaneously.
To estimate the rate of consumption of leaf litter by termites on the forest floor of Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, West Malaysia, newly fallen leaves were marked and distributed on the ground. The loss of leaf area due to termites was determined either photometrically or visually. An average of 1.70% of the total surface area of the leaf litter disappeared per week in experiment 1 and 1.25% in experiment 2 in Plot 1, and 2.9% per day in other plots located near the mounds of Macrotermes carbonarius. The amount of leaf litter accumulation in the Ao layer was estimated at about 2.3 t/ha at Plot 1, so it was likely that an amount equivalent to about 32% of the daily leaf-litter fall was transported by M. carbonarius to their mounds in experiment 1 and 22% in experiment 2. It was considered that the termites had an important role in the detritus food chain of the ecosystem.
Precipitating antibodies to an insect pathogenic RNA virus of Darna trima from East Malaysia have been found in a small percentage of human sera from several different groups of persons in West Malaysia and the United Kingdom. No associated illness was identified. The results suggest that an antigenically related virus or viruses are present in the environment that may be associated with symptomless or inapparent infections in man.