To estimate the rate of consumption of leaf litter by termites on the forest floor of Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, West Malaysia, newly fallen leaves were marked and distributed on the ground. The loss of leaf area due to termites was determined either photometrically or visually. An average of 1.70% of the total surface area of the leaf litter disappeared per week in experiment 1 and 1.25% in experiment 2 in Plot 1, and 2.9% per day in other plots located near the mounds of Macrotermes carbonarius. The amount of leaf litter accumulation in the Ao layer was estimated at about 2.3 t/ha at Plot 1, so it was likely that an amount equivalent to about 32% of the daily leaf-litter fall was transported by M. carbonarius to their mounds in experiment 1 and 22% in experiment 2. It was considered that the termites had an important role in the detritus food chain of the ecosystem.
Precipitating antibodies to an insect pathogenic RNA virus of Darna trima from East Malaysia have been found in a small percentage of human sera from several different groups of persons in West Malaysia and the United Kingdom. No associated illness was identified. The results suggest that an antigenically related virus or viruses are present in the environment that may be associated with symptomless or inapparent infections in man.
1. Nine erythrocyte proteins coded by a separate locus each were analysed in and among seven Malayan species of Rattus belonging to three subgenera. 2. Electrophoretic data obtained confirm the specific status of the seven taxa and divide the seven species into three groups which correspond with Ellerman's (1949) subgenera Stenomys, Maxomys and Leopoldamys. 3. A comparative study together with 11 other species of Malayan Rattus previously analysed show that, with few exceptions, the overall relationships among the 18 species based on electrophoretic data correspond well with conclusions based on morphological evidence. 4. Malayan species of Rattus are relatively very diverse genetically (S = 0.27, range 0.01-0.94).
MeSH terms: Acid Phosphatase/metabolism; Animals; Blood Protein Electrophoresis; L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism; Malate Dehydrogenase/metabolism; Muridae/metabolism*; Phenotype; Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase/metabolism; Proteins/metabolism*; Species Specificity; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism; Rats; In Vitro Techniques
Acid alpha-glucosidase from the placenta was electrophoretically surveyed in a total of 633 Malaysians, 236 of Malay, 261 of Chinese and 136 of Indian ancestries. A new variant, alpha-glucosidase 3-1 was observed in 1 Malay and 3 Indians. A polymorphism for this enzyme was observed among Indians, but in Chinese and Malays variants are rare. Phenotype 2-1 was observed once in a Chinese and once in a Malay.
Human alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 and ADH3 were investigated in liver and stomach specimens of Chinese and Indians from West Malaysia. Eight-nine percent of the Chinese carry the atypical ADH2 type, a proportion very similar to that reported in Japanese. However, among 43 Indian specimens there was not a single case of atypical ADH2. In Indians, the gene frequency of ADH13 is 0.64 and of ADH23 0.36, similar to the frequencies in Caucasians, whereas in Chinese, the gene frequency for ADH13 and ADH23 is 0.91 and 0.09, respectively. We also report some unusual enzymatic characteristics in the course of our study.
Levels of immunoglobulins G, A, M and E as well as complement components C3c and C4 have been determined in populations in various endemic areas in Peninsular Malaysia and also in filariasis patients. High immunoglobulin levels were seen. In the microfilarial-negative group IgG was 2009 mg% while IgE was 3967 I.U./ml. In the filariasis group, Wuchereria bancrofti patients had significantly higher levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, namely, 3314 mg%, 804 mg% and 18400 I.U./ml respectively. The significance of these levels is discussed.
Which factors have the greater influence on family planning performance: fixed background variables such as racial composition, urbanization, and mortality, which are affected by level of development, or program inputs such as assignment of personnel and location of clinics, which are subject to manipulation by administrators? An analysis of differences in family planning acceptance among 70 districts of Malaysia shows that two main program-manipulable variables--level of personnel deployment and accessibility of clinics--have the largest direct effect upon acceptance levels. Variations in background factors explain a smaller proportion.
MeSH terms: Contraception Behavior; Ethnic Groups; Family Planning Services*; Humans; Malaysia; Patient Acceptance of Health Care*; Population Growth; Socioeconomic Factors
The permainan puteri (usually abbreviated to main puteri) is an indigenous Kelantanese healing ceremony in which the bomoh (traditional medicine-man), the sick individual and other participants become spirit-medium through whom puteri (spirits) are able to enact a permainan ('play'). It has been successfully used as a psychotherapy for depression. The bomoh assisted by his minduk (master of spirits) and a troupe of musicians, is able to provide a conceptual framework around which the sick individual can organize his vague, mysterious and chaotic symptoms so that they become comprehensible and orderly. At the same time the bomoh is able to draw the sick individual out of his state of morbid self-absorption and heighten his feelings of self-worth. The involvement of his family, relatives and friends tends to enhance group solidarity and reintegrate the sick individual into his immediate social group.
MeSH terms: Mental Disorders/etiology; Mental Disorders/therapy; Ceremonial Behavior; Health Services*; Health Services, Indigenous*; Humans; Malaysia; Medicine, Traditional; Psychotherapy/methods*; Spiritualism
There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change.
MeSH terms: Adult; Mental Disorders/epidemiology*; Canada; China/ethnology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Ethnic Groups; Family; Female; Great Britain; Humans; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Residence Characteristics; Sex Factors; Singapore; Socioeconomic Factors; Sri Lanka/ethnology; Student Health Services/utilization; Universities*
Paralytic poliomyelitis is a constantly rising problem in the developing world. It may take an insiduous endemic "infantile paralysis" behaviour exacting a high toll in the first few years of life, as in Ghana or Burma but on the other hand it may take the form of sudden extensive outbreaks of paralytic disease as in Argentina, Mexico or Malaysia. The developed world has controlled the disease by effectively immunizing a very high proportion of their populations, but those who have not been vaccinated are at risk even in countries with very high coverage, as has been noted in the Netherlands, Sweden, United States of America, etc. There is no reason to have a crippled paralytic child (or adult). Both the live and killed vaccines have been repeatedly shown to be safe and effective. The minute risk incidental to vaccination is more than one hundredfold smaller than the risk from the disease, not only in the developing world but in the developed world as well. Therefore, the question of which vaccine to use is of far less relevance than of how to increase effective coverage with any available vaccine. This does not mean that vaccine control should be relaxed. A health respect should be maintained for the polioviruses used as vaccine sources and great care must be exercised by those undertaking the manufacture or the administration of vaccine.
Salmonella weltevreden has been found to be one of the commonest Salmonella serotypes isolated from diverse sources in India and has also been isolated in a number of other countries. A phage typing scheme was developed for this serotype using a set of six typing phages. These phages had been selected out of 146 phage strains isolated and purified from stool samples of man, laboratory animals and other animals, sewage and surface water sources, and the lytic mutants of temperate phages form S. weltevreden. The phage typing scheme was applied systematically to type the 946 strains from India isolated during 1958-1974 and 148 strains originating from Australia, Burma, England, Gan Island, Holland, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Thailand, The United States and Vietnam during 1953-1971. The scheme was particularly studied to evaluate its utility in mapping the epidemiologically related strains from various sources. The S. weltevreden strains could be classified into ten phage types. Phage types 2 and 7 were found exclusively amongst Indian strains, type 6 from Vietnam and type 8 from Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. Phage types were found to be stable and consistent with the independent epidemiological data available.
The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented.
Four red cell enzyme systems were studied in Malaysian mothers and their newborn belonging to three racial groups, the Malays, Indians and Chinese. No significant heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), adenosine deaminase (ADA), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and acid phosphatase (AP) phenotypes between mothers and their newborn of the three groups. Pooled mother and child acid phosphatase data show a significant heterogeneity between the Malays and Chinese, and between the Malays and Indians. This is comparable to previous studies conducted. For the placental phosphoglucomutase (PGM3) system, a significant heterogeneity was observed between the Chinese and Malays only. No significant heterogeneity was detected in the distribution of PGM1, ADA and 6PGD phenotypes among Malays, Chinese and Indians.
A total of 640 Malaysians, 355 of Malay, 155 of Chinese, and 130 of Indian ancestries have been examined for saliva acid phosphatases. The three ethnic groups were polymorphic for saliva acid phosphatase A (Sap-A) and saliva acid phosphatase (B (Sap-B). The gene frequencies were: Sap-A, Malays: A = 0.469, A' = 0.001, A degrees = 0.530; Chinese: A = 0.436, A' = 0.010, A degrees = 0.555; Indians: A = 0.533, A' = 0.012, A degrees = 0.456. For Sap-B, Malays: B = 0.925, B degrees = 0.075; Chinese: B = 0.797, B1 = 0.016, B degrees = 0.187; Indians: B 0.752, B degrees = 0.248. Phenotype ABB1 is described.