A review of 20 cases of neuroblastoma at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from 1967 to 1980 reveals six infants aged 2 to 13 months with stage IV·S disease, associated with an unusually good prognosis. Four of the six patients presented with hepatomegaly, one had skin nodules and another paresis of the lower limbs. The primary tumour was located infra-diaphragmatically in all cases, four had disease in the bone marrow but none had radiological evidence of bone involvement. Although not systematic, with limited treatment of low dose radiation and mild chemotherapy, four patients are alive and well, one absconded and one died of septicaemia. It is important to define this special category as an unexpectedly good survival is possible with minimal therapy. Death is more likely to result from over-zealous treatment than from the disease itself.
The menstrual patterns of 281 women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization with silastic rings were studied prospectively. A significant increase in dysmenorrhea and irregular periods was seen soon after sterilization but this was transient, returning to presterilization levels by 12 months. Menorrhagia was not observed and the amount of menstrual blood loss showed a trend towards normal following sterilization. No permanent adverse effects on menstrual patterns were seen in the 1st year after sterilization. It is suggested that factors other than the sterilization procedure may be responsible for the high prevalence of menstrual dysfunction that has been reported following sterilization.
In 1977 and 1978 selected in-patients at the Tegalyoso Hospital, Klaten, Indonesia who had recent onsets of acute fever were serologically studied for evidence for alphavirus and flavivirus infections. A brief clinical history was taken and a check list of signs and symptoms was completed on admission. Acute and convalescent phase sera from 30 patients who showed evidence that a flavivirus had caused their illnesses were tested for neutralizing antibodies to several flaviviruses which occur in South-east Asia. Paired sera from seven patients demonstrated a fourfold rise in antibody titre from acute to convalescent phase. The most common clinical manifestations observed in this series of patients included high fever, malaise, stomach ache, dizziness and anorexia. None of the seven patients had headache or rash despite the fact that headache and rash had been associated with two of the three previously studied. The onsets of illness clustered toward the end of the rainy season when populations of Aedes aegypti, a probable vector in Malaysia, were most abundant.
Healthy Malaysians from various parts of Peninsular Malaysia were examined for CF antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. CMV antibodies were detected in 1114 out of 1556 persons (71.6%) and HSV antibodies were detected in 954 persons out of 1554 (61.4%). The age distribution patterns were similar for the two infections, with maximum prevalence at 5 - 14 years of age. Prevalence was higher in women than in men. There were no significant differences among the Malay, Chinese, and Indian groups of the population with respect to CMV, 72 - 78% possessing antibodies, but in the case of HSV, 76% of the Chinese had antibodies, compared with 57 - 60% of the Malays and Indians. More than 90% of newborn infants had CMV and HSV CF antibodies, confirming the highly immune status of childbearing women in Malaysia. No CMV-specific IgM was detected in the Malaysian neonates examined but this does not exclude the possibility of congenital infection.
MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antibodies, Viral/analysis; Child; Child, Preschool; Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology; Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Female; Herpes Simplex/immunology; Herpes Simplex/epidemiology*; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Continental Population Groups
Scrub typhus is a widespread and at times serious infection in Asia. If results from central Malaysia can be applied, it appears to be economically important. Diagnosis is often difficult and treatment prone to fail if short courses of antibiotics are used. Prophylaxis is the key area of research with the development of a vaccine being the ultimate goal.
Doxycycline in a single dose was found to be a valuable drug in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. It was less effective in a single daily dose of 4 mg/kg body-weight for four days, when it cured only five out of nine patients, while a dosage of 4 mg/kg body-weight for seven days cured 23 out of 26 patients.
A case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistant to Fansidar (sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine) at a level corresponding to R III and resistant to chloroquine is reported. The infection was most certainly acquired in Malaysia, but diagnosed and treated in a non-malarious area. Normal resorption and elimination rates of the Fansidar components excludes cure failure due to abnormal drug fate in the host. P. falciparum parasites from the patient have been maintained in vitro cultures. The patient was permanently cured with mefloquine.
The problems of pediatric cardiology in Asia can be summarized as follows. In the countries like India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and some other countries especially with government support like Thailand, the priority is primary health care. Except in Japan, cardiac care for children is not well supported financially. Training in pediatric cardiology is not readily available. Consequently small numbers of pediatric cardiologists, pediatric cardiac surgeons and active centres are available even in Japan. It is importannt to reduce the incidence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease by prevention of streptococcal infections and to increase the standard of living and environment. Transportation and referral system diagnosis, and treatment and follow-up is a special problem in neonatal care in relation to heart disease. Concentration of physicians, medical schools and cardiac centers in urban areas, old customs and poor understanding of people about the treatability and preventability of heart diseases in children complicate the improvement in the management of children with heart diseases.
MeSH terms: Asia; Child; Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology*; Humans; Rheumatic Heart Disease/epidemiology*; Continental Population Groups
Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.
MeSH terms: Africa; Circumcision, Male/methods*; Clitoris/surgery; Costs and Cost Analysis; Ethics, Medical*; Female; Genitalia, Female/surgery*; Humans; Human Rights; Global Health*
Malays, Chinese and Indians from peninsular Malaysia; Ibans and Bidayuh from Sarawak state, Northern Borneo; and Bataks, Minangkabau and Javanese from North Sumatra, Indonesia, were subtyped for Gc (group-specific component) by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. All eight populations investigated were found to be polymorphic for three common alleles, Gc1F, Gc1S and Gc2.
MeSH terms: Africa; Africa, Eastern; Africa, Southern; Consumer Participation*; Demography; Developing Countries; Economics; Geography; Health Planning*; Housing*; Malaysia; Morocco; Organization and Administration; Peru; Population; Population Density; Poverty Areas*; Public Policy*; Residence Characteristics*; Social Change*; Social Welfare*; Urban Population; Urbanization*; Zambia; Africa South of the Sahara