A case of double infection with Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis in a clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, is presented. A brief review of filarial infections in both man and wild animals, and their medical importance is discussed.
Drug eruptions from indeginous medicine is often difficult to diagnosis and confirm. It is known that a number of these now supplied by bomohs and Chinese sinsehs contain known drugs and are dispensed as tablets and capsules. We report 3 cases of adverse drug eruption to "Jamu", a Malay herb. A particular brand, "Jamu Indonesia, Toko Air Pancur", from Johor Bahru, Malaysia, is especially recommended for "sakit pinggang" or backache. The cases occurred between January and February 1985, and all had taken brown kidney shaped tablets. The adverse reactions were moderately severe. Two had erythroderma with hepatitis, and one, Steven Johnson Syndrome. Analysis of this jamu for analgesics led to the discovery of adulteration with phenylbutazone and diazepam. Records from local cases from 1974-1984 showed that 8 other patients, all Chinese had adverse cutaneous eruptions from phenylbutazone, oxybutazone and propyphenazone. The skin manifestations were erythroderma (2 cases), vasculitis (2 cases) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (4 cases). Those with toxic epidermal necrolysis had 100% mortality.
Congo red screening of tumour material examined at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya revealed intratumour deposits of amyloid in 12% of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 66% of basal cell carcinomas, 100% of medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, 56% of islet cell tumours of the pancreas, 1 out of 16 carcinoids and 1 out of 100 thyroid adenomas. All the deposits were permanganate resistant and did not contain AA protein, indicating that what was encountered was not secondary amyloid. The deposits showed variable staining for immunoglobulin light chains and amyloid P component with a standard peroxidase antiperoxidase method. The possibility that intratumour amyloid has a neoplastic origin is discussed.
In this paper we first present methods and preliminary results of pilot surveys of "serious" mental retardation (IQ less than or equal to 55); the surveys included screening and diagnostic components and were carried out in the less-developed world. Next we discuss two problems raised by these surveys: one is the diagnosis of a case and its clinical dimensions, and the other is the interpretation of prevalence. In the next section we illustrate epidemiological approaches to the analysis of such data, in particular their relevance to prevention. Lastly, we propose that the two-stage survey approach developed in the course of the pilot work can provide a valuable basis for planning and prevention, if certain key conditions can be met.
Data are presented from a long-term study of banded langurs in three contrasting rain forest habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. Results from different sites and months are used to correlate ranging patterns with food availability and other environmental variables. Day range lengths are correlated with availability of preferred foods; the degree of territoriality is related to the distribution and size of food sources and length of time for which any one of these produces favoured food items.
During the early months of 1985 and 1986, 408 non-immune British soldiers undertook training in the jungles north of Kota Tinggi, in southern Malaysia. In this geographical location, where malaria transmission is now light, a combination of strict personal antimosquito measures plus proguanil 200 mg daily produced effective, safe protection, with only a single case of vivax malaria occurring. Given the limited malaria risk, however, the results of this study should be extrapolated only with caution to other areas of Malaysia.
MeSH terms: Proguanil/therapeutic use*; Clothing; Humans; Insect Repellents; Malaria/prevention & control*; Malaysia; Male; Military Personnel; Mosquito Control
Twenty-five strains of enterobacteria, isolated from man in Peninsular Malaysia and consisting of seven Enterobacter spp., five Escherichia coli, five Salmonella spp., four Klebsiella spp., two Shigella spp., one Proteus sp. and and one Providencia sp., were tested for antibiotic resistance and conjugative R plasmids. They were all sensitive to nalidixic acid and resistant to at least three antibiotics. The number of resistances ranged from 3 to 11 antibiotics, including cefoperazone and sisomicin (two) newly released antibiotics), in addition to common drugs of current use. Of the 25 isolates, 19 (76%) conjugally transferred, at varied frequencies, at least two resistance determinants. Results from equilibrium density gradient centrifugation, agarose gel electrophoresis and transformation experiments provided proof that the transferable resistances were plasmid-mediated. Restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns showed that the plasmids from Proteus strain K005 and Providencia strain K001 may be identical.
MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Conjugation, Genetic; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Electrophoresis, Agar Gel; Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects*; Enterobacteriaceae/genetics; Malaysia; Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology; Phenotype; R Factors*; Transformation, Bacterial
This is the first report in which a marine mollusc, Oliva vidua fulminans (olives), generally not known to be poisonous, was responsible for death in five children after consuming boiled olives with tamarind. The onset of symptoms was rapid 10 to 20 min after consumption of the olives. Signs and symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tingling sensation around the lips, numbness around the mouth, drowsiness, lethargy and generalized weakness with paraesthesia in the limbs. The five deaths occurred within 3 to 4 hours after eating the poisoned olives and resulted from respiratory failure. Left-over olives from the affected household and freshly collected live olives had a toxicity of 14,200 mouse units (M.U.) and 15,000 M.U. per 100 g meat respectively. No other common chemical poison and organophosphorus insecticides were detected. The neurotoxic agent was acid and heat stable and was toxic at pH less than 4. Its action was similar to that of paralytic shellfish poisoning which was caused by toxins from certain dinoflagellates.
This article describes a study designed to test a method for assessing the cost to the health services of illegally induced abortion and the feasibility of estimating the incidence of induced abortion by a field interviewing approach. The participating centers included three hospitals in Ankara, Turkey; three hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria; one hospital in Caracas and one in Valencia, Venezuela; and two hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Hospitalized abortion cases were classified as induced or spontaneous or as "probably induced," "possibly induced," or "unknown" according to a classification scheme comprising certain medical criteria. The sociodemographic characteristics of induced and spontaneous abortion cases were subjected to discriminant function analysis and the discriminating variables best characterizing the induced versus the spontaneous abortion groups were identified for each center. On the basis of this analysis, the "probably" and "possibly" induced and "unknown" categories were further classified as induced or spontaneous abortion, with stated probabilities. Thus an overall estimate is made of the proportion of all hospitalized abortions that can be considered illegally induced outside the hospital. Selected results on costs of induced and spontaneous abortion are shown. The method further tested the feasibility of obtaining valid survey data on abortion from the communities studied by re-interviewing the women hospitalized for induced and spontaneous abortion six months later in their homes. This exercise showed a degree of under-reporting of abortion that varied widely among centers, even among women who had admitted illegal induction at the time of hospitalization. The feasibility of estimating the incidence of illegal abortion by field studies is discussed in the light of these findings.
MeSH terms: Abortion, Criminal*; Costs and Cost Analysis; Data Collection; Developing Countries*; Female; Health Services/economics*; Humans; Malaysia; Nigeria; Pregnancy; Turkey; Venezuela; Pregnant Women; Internationality*
A simple atomic-absorption spectrophotometry method is described for the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc in lead- and tin-base solders and white-metal bearing alloys, with use of a single sample solution. The sample is dissolved in a mixture of hydrobromic acid and bromine, then fumed with sulphuric acid. The lead sulphate is dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid. The method is particularly suitable for the determination of silver and bismuth, which are co-precipitated with lead sulphate. The other elements can also be determined after removal of the lead sulphate by filtration.
The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth.
Field observations were made on Coquillettidia crassipes during a study of Mansonia in a swamp forest ecotype in Tanjong Karang. There was an increase in abundance in July consistent with the increase in abundance of Mansonia and an increase in rainfall. The biting cycle showed a dramatic early peak during the period 1900-2000 hours. The probability of daily survival through one day for the first three gonotrophic cycles was 0.770, 0.722 and 0.759. Two of the 54 Cq. crassipes dissected were infective, with two and 25 L3 larvae of Brugia. Both subperiodic B. malayi and B. pahangi developed into L3 larvae in laboratory bred Cq. crassipes. The index of experimental infection was higher for B. pahangi. Mansonia bonneae and Ma. uniformis showed higher indices of experimental infection than Cq. crassipes for subperiodic B. malayi. It is concluded that in an endemic area with a high density of Cq. crassipes it could act as a secondary vector of Brugian filariasis.