A comparative study of four Malayan ferns, Christensenia aesculifolia (Bl.) Maxon, Tectaria singaporeana (Wall.) Ching, Abacopteris multilineata (Wall.) Ching and Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw. from shady habitats and another four, Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Und., Lygodium scandens (L.) Sw., Blechnum orientate Linn, and Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.) Bedd. from sunlit habitats showed that the total chlorophyll content expressed on a gram fresh weight basis was greater in the shade ferns. There was little difference in the chlorophyll content between the sun and shade ferns when it was expressed on a per unit leaf area basis. The protein and protohaem content was greater in the sun ferns. Measurements of the in vitro photochemical activities of the photosystems I and II in isolated chloroplasts by means of an oxygen electrode showed higher rates in the sun ferns. As determined by spectrophotometric analysis, the photosynthetic cytochrome content from isolated chloroplasts was greater in the sun ferns. The results indicate that the sun ferns have physiological characteristics favouring greater capacity for photosynthesis. Mitochondria isolated from the sun ferns showed faster rates of electron transport using exogenous NADH as substrate.
MeSH terms: Chlorophyll; Chloroplasts; Cytochromes; Electrodes; Electron Transport; Heme; Mitochondria; NAD; Oxygen; Photosynthesis; Polymers; Ecosystem; Plant Leaves; Ferns; Photosystem I Protein Complex
Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) or Type II reaction is an immune complex syndrome seen in multibacillary leprosy. 20 patients with histological confirmation of ENL in leprosy were studied from 1982 to 1986. These patients had a range of clinical signs, from fever, tender dusky nodules, bullae, ulcers to lymphadenopathy, arthralgia and neuritis. The four major histological patterns are: a) classical pattern showing heavy infiltrations of neutrophils in three cases, b) sub-epidermal bulla pattern with marked oedema of the upper dermis, and collections of neutrophils in five cases, c) vasculitis pattern, affecting superficial and mid-dermal vessels, leading to epidermal necrosis, bulla formation and ulceration. Dilated vessels, congestion, lumenal fibrin clots and fibrinoid necrosis of vessels were seen, d) non-specific picture in nine cases with mild oedema, infiltration with neutrophils, and two cases with minimal reaction had chronic ENL with clinical vasculitis. All the five cases with vasculitis showed C1q, C3 and fibrinogen in the vessels. Comparing ENL reactions reported in Asia, our pattern is similar to that of Malaysians with the majority showing sub-epidermal oedema. Vasculitis is more common in India. Oedema with collagen necrosis as seen in acute ENL with iritis in New Guinea. The Lucio's phenomenon was not seen in any of the countries in Asia.
Since thrombi continue to incorporate fibrin during lysis we tested the effect of pretreatment with ancrod, a defibrinating agent from Malaysian pit viper venom, on thrombolysis with urokinase and streptokinase. Thrombi were induced by copper-coils in the carotid arteries of the dogs, weighed after 1 hour and inserted into the femoral arteries of the same animals. They were then exposed for 15 min to iv boluses of streptokinase 10,000 U/kg, urokinase 10,000 U/kg and urokinase 25,000 U/kg with or without pretreatment with ancrod. Ancrod depleted fibrinogen within 5 min and enhanced the lytic effect of streptokinase from 25 +/- 8% to 59 +/- 13% (p less than .05), urokinase 10,000 U/kg from 16 +/- 11% to 66 +/- 18% (p less than .01) and urokinase 25,000 U/kg from 27 +/- 17% to 85 +/- 8% (p less than .001) of the initial thrombus weight. Ancrod itself did not activate plasminogen to plasmin. We conclude that ancrod enhances thrombolysis probably by depleting fibrinogen and preventing new fibrin incorporation into the thrombus during lysis.
The potential use of ancrod, a purified isolate from the venom of the Malaysian pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma, in decreasing the frequency of cyclic flow variations in severely stenosed canine coronary arteries and causing thrombolysis of an acute coronary thrombus induced by a copper coil was evaluated. Open-chest, anesthetized dogs were used. Ancrod was given intravenously (8 U/kg) over 1 hour and caused a significant reduction in the frequency of cyclic flow variations (5.8 +/- 0.7 to 3.6 +/- 0.8 cyclic flow variations per 30 minutes, p less than 0.05), whereas control animals failed to decrease the frequency of their cyclic flow variations over the same time period (5.3 +/- 0.3 to 5.0 +/- 0.4 cyclic flow variations per 30-minute period). Twenty-seven dogs had a coronary thrombus induced by a copper coil positioned directly in a major coronary artery; of these, four died of ventricular fibrillation prior to treatment, eight received an infusion of saline and showed no thrombolysis over 5 hours, and three died of ventricular fibrillation during the initial part of an intravenous infusion of ancrod. The remaining 12 dogs received ancrod intravenously (16 U/kg); six demonstrated lysis of the coronary thrombus (mean time to lysis, 65 +/- 20 minutes). The concentrations of ancrod used in these studies produced a severe decrease in systemic fibrinogen concentration and a significant decrease in the inhibitor of plasminogen activator levels. Thus, ancrod decreases the frequency of cyclic flow variations in stenosed canine coronary arteries and may cause coronary thrombolysis in approximately 50% of animals within 65 +/- 20 minutes of its intravenous administration.
Citation: National Health Morbidity Survey 1986. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 1987
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-1986)
National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) was first initiated in 1986. Its objectives were to supplement existing data on the pattern of health problems, health needs and expenditure on health in the community to enable the Ministry of Health to review priorities and activities of programmes, plan future allocation of resources and evaluate the impact of strategies.
The scopes covered in the survey were morbidity rates, health service utilizations and their barriers, health expenditure and their sources, immunization coverage, acute respiratory illness, hypertension, angina, smoking, diabetes, astma and injuries. The survey only focused in Peninsular Malaysia with response rate in different modules ranging from 92 to 100%. The survey was spearheaded by the Institute for Public Health (IPH) and partially supported by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Grant.
The scopes covered in this survey were load of illness, health seeking behaviour, health care consumption cost, health related behaviours (exercise, breast-feeding practices, pap-smear examination, breast examination, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, adolescent risky behaviour: smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, sexual practices), specific health problems (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, medically diagnosed cancer, injury, physical impairments, astman and acuter respiratory inflections), and blood cholesterol level. The response rate at Living Quarters (LQ) level was 86.9%.
Child abuse is as age-old problem which involves physical, emotional and sexual abuse and also the unauthorised administration of drugs to children. The problem does not arise from just a single cause or factor but is multifactorial. One big area is the presence of social situational stresses prior to or during the episodes of abuse. The author has carried out a retrospective study of twenty cases of child abuse investigated by the Department of Social Welfare, Kuala Lumpur from December 1979 to January 1980. This paper describes part of the findings, namely the social situational stresses. The findings are found to be similar to those of other studies, both local and abroad.