This paper represents a reappraisal of the gross and histological features of 45 cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumours as observed under conventional light and fluorescence microscopy. The findings conformed largely to those of previous studies. Usage of the term adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in preference to its old name 'adenoameloblastoma' is emphasized. The differential diagnosis of this entity from the ameloblastoma and salivary gland tumours is discussed.
In his article, 'The Effectiveness of Symbols,' Lévi-Strauss contends that the details of a Cuna birth incantation evoke specific physiological responses from parturient women, aiding them through difficult labors. His argument, which analyzes the incantation as a text divorced from its social setting, has drawn criticism from students of Cuna society on a number of substantive points, primarily centering around the difficulties that the special linguistic form of ritual language would present to a non-adept. If the patient lacks a thorough comprehension of the mythic details, how can the incantation change her physiological processes? In an attempt to evaluate the effect of myth upon a woman in labor, this article calls upon Cuna and Malay ethnographic data, and presents a Malay birth incantation as interpreted by the ritual practitioner who recited it. Following a discussion of the non-semantic aspects of the incantation and the extent to which the patient shares the interpretation of the healer in both the Malay and Cuna societies, recent biomedical studies are cited in support of hypotheses concerning the physiological and biochemical effects of myth in the management of childbirth.
Some insecticides to control and prevent screw-worm fly strike by Chrysomya bezziana in calves and adult cattle were tested in field trials on cattle in Sabah, East Malaysia. Ivermectin injected subcutaneously in newborn calves at 200 mu/kg provided 10 days protection from screw-worm fly strike, which allowed navels to dry. Ivermectin, 1% dichlofenthion plus gentian violet and 3% lindane plus pine oil smear were all effective in preventing re-strike of treated wounds in adult cattle. A single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at 200 mu/kg was effective, whereas it was necessary to re-apply the dichlofenthion and lindane smear preparations every 48h.
Potential tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical agents have been prepared by attaching a cisplatin derivative to a ligand capable of forming a stable complex with 99mTc. Three new organometallic compounds, with iminodiacetic acid as the 99mTc chelating group and 2,3-diaminopropionamide as the platinum complexing group, have been prepared and characterized. Preliminary biodistribution studies in tumor bearing mice support the utility of this approach.
The pattern of seroconversion to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined in 98 Malaysian children aged 2 weeks to 12 years. Maternal IgG antibodies to EBV viral capsid antigen, ranging between 1:10 to 1:160 titer, were found in 70.6 percent of infants less than three months old, and dropped to 26 percent by seven to nine months. Primary infection, as denoted by emergence of EBV-IgM antibody, occurred at 4 to 6 months, and by eight years all children were seropositive. Maternal antibody titers to EBV nuclear antigen were detected in 52.9 percent of infants less than 3 months old, declined to undetectable levels by 4 to 12 months, and then increased to 40 percent by the age of 12 years. The IgA antibody to viral capsid antigen was absent in all but one infant aged one year; the child also had IgG anti-early antigen, The IgG antibody to EBV early antigen were present in 17.7 percent of the infants aged 3 months or less. This seroconversion to EBV in early life explains the absence of infectious mononucleosis in the Malaysian population. The data suggest that a subunit vaccine to protect against EBV-associated diseases, most notably nasopharyngeal carcinoma, commonly observed in Malaysians would have to be administered to infants 6-12 months of age.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum of 31 patients with histologically confirmed primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) from Malaysia and Indonesia was quantitated by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms obtained by Southern blot DNA hybridization, after electrophoresis using a 32P DNA cloned into plasmid pBR325 as a probe. This quantitation after electrophoresis is more informative than the usual spot hybridization technique. Five of the 31 sera were positive for HBV DNA. Levels ranged between 1.36 pq and 143.18 pq per ml of serum, and the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe in the serum were serologically determined. All five sera positive for HBV DNA were also positive for HBsAg. Three of the five positive for HBV DNA were positive for HBeAg and negative for anti-HBe. Two of the sera positive for HBV DNA were negative for HBeAg but positive for anti-HBe. All sera negative for HBV DNA were also negative for HBeAg. Many sera which were negative for HBV DNA and HBeAg were positive for HBsAg. Of the 31 sera from PHC patients, 23 had at least one HBV marker positive (74.2%).
MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/blood*; Hepatitis B Antigens/analysis; Hepatitis B virus/genetics*; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/microbiology*; Humans; Liver Neoplasms/genetics; Liver Neoplasms/microbiology*
The mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indians is more than three times that in the Chinese and Malays of Singapore. Serum total and HDL cholesterol as well as apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, AII and B levels were determined in a group of 349 newborns (cord blood) from both sexes in these three ethnic groups in order to examine if a trend is reflected at birth. Both serum LDL cholesterol and Apo B levels were low in the newborn, while HDL cholesterol and Apo AII levels were almost the same as in adults. Serum Apo AI levels were also low in newborns. No consistent difference as to ethnic group or sex was observed in any of the parameters investigated, except that the females had significantly higher levels of serum Apo AI in all the ethnic groups. Serum total and HDL cholesterol levels in Singapore newborns were comparable to those reported in Caucasians and Asians. The trends of incidence of CAD were not reflected in the lipid profiles studied at birth.
Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitivities to chloroquine and mefloquine were assessed with WHO in vitro microtechnique test kits in 5 localities near the border with Thailand in Peninsular Malaysia. 105 of 113 (92.9%) parasite isolates were successfully tested and 103 (98.1%) showed resistance to chloroquine with parasite growth even at greater than or equal to 5.7 pmol of the drug. All these isolates were sensitive to mefloquine, parasite growth being inhibited at less than or equal to 11.3 pmol of the drug.
Prolonged lactation and early supplementation have been traditional practices among low-income mothers in Malaysia, the Caribbean, Nigeria and Zaire. Early supplementation is still the norm but there have been some substantial changes in the types of supplement offered. Thus, except in Zaire, there is now widespread use of processed milks as supplements for very young infants. The use of processed milks began in the 1920s in Malaysia and the Caribbean, but not until the 1960s in Nigeria. Processed milks are, as yet, rarely used in Zaire. The use of processed milks has not, however, led to the abandonment of traditional paps. The latter are still given as supplements to young infants in Nigeria and to older infants in Malaysia and the Caribbean. Breast-feeding duration has declined in Malaysia and the Caribbean although initiation is almost universal. In Nigeria and Zaire most low-income mothers continue to breast-feed for at least 12 months. The changes in the types of supplements used and in breast-feeding duration are analogous to the changes observed in industrialised countries from the mid-19th century, and many of the associated factors are similar: urbanisation; female participation in the labour force; increased availability of processed milks and their promotion both by companies and the health sector; and the regimentation of breast-feeding. This review highlights the negative role played by the health sector in the past, and discusses its future role in promoting and supporting breast-feeding.
MeSH terms: Breast Feeding*; Developing Countries*; Female; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Malaysia; Nigeria; West Indies; Women, Working; Democratic Republic of the Congo; History, 18th Century; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century
Ovalocytosis, an hereditary condition in which most erythrocytes are oval in shape, is a polymorphism that occurs in up to 20% or more of the population in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Due to the geographical correlation of the trait with endemic malaria, the possibility of a selective advantage in resistance to malaria has been raised. In a study of 202 individuals with greater than or equal to 50% oval red cells matched by age, sex and village of residence with controls having less than or equal to 30% oval cells, ovalocytic subjects had blood films negative for Plasmodium vivax (P = 0.009), for P. falciparum (P = 0.044), and for all species of malaria parasites (P = 0.013), more often than controls. Among individuals parasitaemic at any time there were no clear differences in density of parasitaemia. However, in children 2 to 4 years old, parasite densities of both species were lower in ovalocytic subjects than in controls (0.01 less than P less than 0.025). The differential susceptibility to malaria infection suggested by this study has implications for the evaluation of interventions, including possible future vaccine field trials, in populations where high-frequency ovalocytosis is present.
Of 36 cases of choriocarcinoma treated at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur during 1980-84 inclusive, 6 patients were found to have cerebral metastases. Intrathecal methotrexate and combination chemotherapy were started in all cases, with monitoring of tumor growth by serial beta-HCG assays and CT scanning of brain and lung. Chemotherapy was reduced because of severe toxicity in 2 patients, one of whom received radiotherapy to the brain. Four patients (66%) have now been in remission for 2.5-6 years. Two did not respond to therapy and died. The factors involved in therapy and response are discussed.
Maternal and fetal blood gas values were studied in 90 selected mothers of comparable age, weight, duration of pregnancy and hematocrit values undergoing cesarean section under balanced general anesthesia in four differing clinical situations: elective with and without placental dysfunction, and emergency with and without fetal distress in apparently normal mothers. Pre-induction (Fi O2 0.21) and pre-delivery (Fi O2 0.60) maternal blood gas analysis, along with umbilical cord blood gas analysis were performed in all cases. Apgar scoring was carried out at one minute and three minutes and correlated with the blood gas values. Out of the 90 cases studied, 36 neonates (40%) showed good apgar scores of greater than seven at one minute and three minutes and correlated well with maternal blood gas values which were within normal ranges. Of the remaining 54 cases (60%) with similar mean maternal gas values the neonates showed an apgar score of less than seven in the first minute. The score improved in three minutes in 35 of them (66%), and umbilical cord blood gas values showed a low pH (umbilical vein 7.22 +/- 0.02 units, umbilical arterial 7.21 +/- 0.01 units) but satisfactory pO2 (umbilical vein 39.4 +/- 1.9 torr, umbilical arterial 2.5 +/- 1.3 torr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The enzymatic activities of four samples of Malayan cobra venom were investigated. There was significant variation in the contents of L-amino acid oxidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase. The phosphodiesterase content was, however, constant. Storage of the lyophilized venom powder at 25 degrees C for 1 month did not affect the enzymatic activities. The venom enzymatic activities were generally also stable at 4 degrees C in 0.85% saline solution. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 39 days in 0.85% saline solution, the venom still retained considerable amounts of enzymatic activities. SP-Sephadex C-25 ion-exchange chromatography of the venom showed that the phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase exist in multiple forms.
A serological study on dengue infection conducted in Singapore during the period 1982 to 1984 showed that 54.4% of the healthy population between 6 months and over 50 years of age surveyed possessed no haemagglutination-inhibition antibody to dengue type 2 virus. Children below 10 years of age showed the lowest antibody prevalence and were at the greatest risk, with 96.6% susceptible to infection, whereas virtually all adults over 40 showed evidence of prior dengue infection. The geometric mean titre showed a rising trend indicating continuing acquisition of infection in the older age groups. The seropositivity rate of dengue infection of males was twice that of females. Among the 3 major ethnic groups, no significant difference in seropositivity was noted between the Malays and Indians, but the differences between Malays and Chinese and between Indians and Chinese were statistically significant. The study confirmed that the successful implementation of the nation-wide Aedes control programme is reducing endemic dengue virus transmission in the country.
Unlike much of Peninsular Malaysia, the Baram District of Sarawak remains sparsely populated and underserved, one of the most underserved peoples being the nomadic and semi-nomadic Penans of the Baram. Until quite recently these Penans lived as small nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers. More recently, they have begun to settle in longhouses. However, lacking the necessary skills to live a settled mode of life, these Penans suffer a great deal of hunger, malnutrition, disease and death. Primary health care with its emphasis on the seven essential elements, including food production and nutrition, environmental sanitation, good maternal and child health, knowledge of disease and how it can be prevented as well as the treatment and control of locally endemic diseases, is of critical value in the survival of the semi-nomadic Penans. The specially designed primary health care programme for the Penans of the Baram is outlined briefly in this paper.
Keyword: Baram, Penans, Primary Health Care, Sarawak, Village Health Promoter.
MeSH terms: Community Health Workers; Ethnic Groups*; Humans; Life Style*; Malaysia; Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
In a review of 112 patients with SLE nephritis treated between 1976 and 1982, 31 were known to have died. Renal failure (32.2%) was the commonest cause of death. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage (16%), infections (12.8%) and central nervous system involvement (6.5%) were important causes of death. Thirteen out of 17 patients dying in the presence of renal failure had initially presented with renal impairment. Renal biopsies in 16 patients who have died showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis in all except 1 patient, and uraemia was the commonest cause of death in these patients. Pregnancies terminating in abortions were followed by complications in 5 patients. Discontinuation of steroid therapy by patients was followed by complications, and ended in death in 6 patients.