Familial Paroxysmal Rhabdomyolysis of the non-exertional variety is a rare but treatable disorder previously not described in Malaysia. We report 3 Malay siblings of a consanguinous marriage who developed myoglobulinuria during a febrile illness. The first 2 died without being investigated, but the last had creatinine kinase levels of 24,800 UIL suggesting acute rhabdomyolysis. Fasting appears to be a major precipitating factor, and glucose infusions combined with alkaline diuresis may be life-saving.
Two patients aged twelve and ten years who fulfilled the criteria of severe aplastic anaemia as defined by the International Aplastic Anaemia Group' were treated with cyclosporin for six months. A normalisation of blood count and bone marrow was seen after six months of therapy in one patient. Serious side effects were seen in the other patient and cyclosporin had to be discontinued.
MeSH terms: Anemia, Aplastic; Bone Marrow; Humans; Cyclosporine
The objective of the study is to investigate the extent of preventive and promotive health care in the ambulatory management of paediatric gastroenteritis in an incompletely immunised child using the simulated patient methodology. Only 44% of doctors explained to the fathers the nature of their child's ailment. 75% of clinicians prescribed oral rehydration solution but only 4% met the Gold Standard. The questionnaire survey showed that doctors rated immunisation as a very important health message to disseminate to all parents. But only 3% of doctors in the study advised parents to complete each child's immunisation once he is well. The extent of preventive and promotive health care in ambulatory paediatric practice in the Klang Valley is very low. (Copied from article).
Recurrent boils are troublesome enough to children and their parents to be finally referred to the paediatricians. This study attempts to provide local data on epidemiology, pattern of infections of offending organism especially Staphylococcus aureus and underlying immunological abnormality. This condition does not appear to be related to socio economic status nor is staphylococcal nasal cariage a direct contributing factor. Defect in neutrophil function especially the respiratory burst assayed via chemiluminescence response to Staphylococcus aureus is closely associated with this condition. It is hoped that this data would be a further impetus for further research into this exciting field.
Cross-sectional studies on infant feeding practices in Malaysia have shown that even though there is a high percentage of initial breastfeeding, there is also a very rapid fall-off of full breastfeeding to be replaced by mixed feeding or full formula feeding. This paper gives the findings of a study conducted on 148 mothers who had just delivered their babies at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. 56 of these mothers were followed up to identify the feeding practices up to 6 months of the infant's life. Just after delivery, 83 .1% of the 148 motftrs had indicated interest to breasffeed either fully or partially. However, in the 56 mothers followed up later, 15 (26.7%) babies were not breasffed or breasffed for less than 1 week and only 15 (26.5%) were breasffed at least 6 months. Several factors affect breastfeeding rate amongst these mothers. Breastfeeding rate was significantly higher and longer amongst the Malays and least and shortest amongst the Chinese. The number of Malay mothers breastfeeding less than 1 week was 2 out of 24 (8.3%) whereas the number of Chinese mothers was 10 out of 19 (52.6%). Similarly, the number of Malay mothers breastfeeding beyond 3 months was 16 out of 24 (67.7%) and Chinese mothers only 4 out of 19 (21.0%). Other important factors are the type of initial feeding and the onset of initial formula feeding. Out of 26 babies initiated on breastmilk as the first feed, 12 were breasffed for at least 6 months whereas 8 of the 18 started on formulas were not breasffed at all or for less than 7 days and only one breastfed for at least 6 months. Similarly, out of 27 babies given formula feeding in the first 2 days, 15 were not breasffed at all or for less than 1 week and only 3 breasffed at least 6 months. This suggests the importance of early mixed feeding in the rapid decline of breastfeeding. The employment status of the mother and the family income do not seem to affect the breastfeeding rate and its duration for the baby.
An outbreak of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Seremban Hospital is reported. The pattern of colonisation and infection with the MRSA was studied for the 1 year period between May 1987 till April 1988. There were few serious MRSA infections. The majority of patients were either colonised or superficially infected. The organism was resistant to all Penicillins, Gentamicin and most Cephalosporins. Netilmicin and Amikacin have shown good activity against MRSA.
The cost effectiveness of the use of disposable diapers was compared to that of cloth diapers in a neonatal unit of 65 beds. A total of 39 doctors and nurses participated in the study. It was found that a cost of RM4 .56 was incurred per baby per day when diapered with disposable diapers compared to RM4.29 when diapered with cloth diapers. However, all doctors and nurses preferred the disposable diaper system because of its significantly better qualities in providing hygiene and dryness, preventing leakage and contamination, and reducing the risk of diaper rashes. Disposable diapers were also easier to use and the volume of associated linen for laundering was reduced. The apparent RM0.27 extra cost per baby per day in the disposable diapering system is offset by its superior qualities and money saved in uncosted items like depreciation of laundering machines and nursing time saved. The disposable diapering system is therefore considered more cost-effective than the cloth diapers system.
An analysis of perinatal statistics in Peninsular Malaysia from 1980 — 1989 was undertaken. The Perinatal Mortality Rate showed a 42% decrease over the 10 year period. The Perinatal Mortality Rate was higher among the Indian and Malay ethnic groups compared to the Chinese. This was largely contributed by the higher Stillbirth rate in the former 2 ethnic groups. The Indians have the highest rate of low birthweight babies. There is a decline in the rate of low birthweight babies born over the studied decade. The major causes of early neonatal mortality included problems asociated with prematurity, asphyxia neonatorum, septicaemia and congenital anomalies. Further epi-demiological research is required to identify other riskfactors which contribute to this ethnic biased perinatal mortality rates. Besides intensifying and upgrading current multifaceted approaches, interventional strategies need to be directed to the identified high risk groups. (Copied from article).
ANTENATAL CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY. Benefits. In 1969, the first study was published which showed that prematurely delivered lambs exposed prenatally to corticosteroids survived longer than placebo-treated control animals.' A randomised clinical trial (RCT) followed which demonstrated that antenatal corticosteroid therapy significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants born before 2 weeks gestation and reduced mortality in those born before 37 weeks.2 A meta-analysis has been published on 12 RCTs involving over 3000 women in preterm labour, using primarily 24mg of betamethasone or dexamethasone given in 2-6 divided doses over a 48-hour period.' It showed that antenatal corticosteroid therapy is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of RDS (a) if the infant is born > 24 hours or < 7 days of the treatment, (b) in both male and female infants and (c) even in infants < 31 weeks gestation. It also significantly reduces mortality rate and morbidity such as intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), shortens the duration of hospitalisation and reduces treatment costs. The improvement in survival rate in infants born
Poliomyelitis in Malaysia has not been reported since 1986. We report two cases of poliomyelitis in non-immunized children whose parents, though relatively educated, opted not to vaccinate their children for socio-cultural reasons. This recent trend may interfere with our attempts to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000. The clinical features, pathophysiology and differential diagnosis are discussed.
A novel method for the control of Mansonia larvae was developed and tested. In this method, foliar absorption and translocation of a chemical insecticide, monocrotophos, a known systemic insecticide was studied in the Eicchornia plant. Acetone solution of the insecticide was painted onto leaves of the plant. At daily intervals, stems were severed and divided into equal sections which were introduced into bowls. Larvae of Aedes aegypti were tested for the presence of monocrotophos. It was found that translocation of the insecticide occurred at different rates in the stems and in some plants the chemical was also released into the surrounding water. Based on these results, 2 insecticides namely, monocrotophos and temephos were painted onto leaves of the host plant and their translocation to the root and water environment was examined by testing with Mansonia and Aedes aegypti larvae. The results again confirmed the translocation process and it was found that the insecticides were secreted into the surrounding water, thereby killing the larvae. However, in leaves painted with permethrin (synthetic pyrethroid) or flufenoxuron (chitin synthesis inhibitor), such a process was not detected. The potential of this new concept in Mansonia larval control is examined.
In a case control study, 70 children consecutively hospitalized for acute ingestion of poisons were compared with 140 other hospitalized children matched for age. Children aged less than 3 years and boys were most often the victims. Univariate analysis identified Indian race, having a parent younger than 21 years, residing at present address for less than 1 year and living in a household with more than five occupants as significant risk factors. Experience of a recent stressful event in the family barely failed to reach the level of significance. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that Indian race, having a parent younger than 21 years and residing less than 1 year at the present address were independent predictors of acute poisoning. Positive interactions were noted between Indian race and duration of residence and between parental age and duration of residence. Knowledge of risk factors and their interactions may be useful in planning preventive measures against childhood poisoning.
Aminoacylase I (EC 220.127.116.11) encapsulated in calcium alginate beads stabilized with poly-L-lysine was used for the production of L-phenylalanine by the hydrolysis of a racemic mixture of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. The immobilized aminoacylase was studied with respect to operational stability, thermal stability, effects of pH and temperature and kinetic constants. The leakage of enzyme from the stabilized beads was eliminated. The immobilized enzyme retained high biological activity. The Km and Vmax values for the stabilized beads were 11.11 mmol dm-3 and 0.076 mumol min-1 respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the hydrolysis were 6.5 and 55 degrees C respectively. Scanning electron micrographs revealed crosslinked structures on the surface of the beads. The operational performances of the beads in a batch reaction and a packed-bed bioreactor for continuous reaction were investigated. With batch reaction, only about 5% of enzyme activity was lost within ten reaction cycles and there was no significant loss of activity over 600 h of continuous operation after equilibrium was reached, and a conversion yield of about 80% was obtained.
Aminoacylase I (EC. 18.104.22.168) was immobilized by covalent crosslinking to alginate molecules with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-carbodiimide HCl followed by calcium alginate bead formation for the production of L-phenylalanine from the racemic mixtures of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. Different concentrations of the coupling reagent were tested and the coupling process was optimized. The immobilized and the partially purified aminoacylase were characterized in terms of the activity, operational stability, thermal stability, pH and temperature optima and kinetic constants, Km and Vmax. The activity of the enzyme covalently immobilized in calcium alginate beads was enhanced by about 75% compared to that of free enzyme. The beads showed stable activity under operational conditions, they lost about 40% of their activity after four reaction cycles. The immobilized aminoacylase was more stable over a broader pH range. Thus this simple method provides irreversible immobilization of aminoacylase to give a biocatalyst with good operational stability and enhanced activity.
The Filariasis Control Program was established more than 30 years ago in the country and the disease is still a public health problem in some states. Since 1983, a total of 17 filariasis control teams were formed throughout the country to carry out filariasis control work. The teams conduct house and population censuses, nocturnal mass blood surveys and treatment of microscopically confirmed cases. Individual case follow-up is being carried out after 3-5 months while the locality is resurveyed after about 2-3 years. During the years 1988 to 1990, there appeared to be a decreasing trend in the number of filariasis cases detected countrywide. In 1991, brugian filariasis accounted for 92% of the cases detected. The microfilaria rate (MFR) also showed a decreasing trend countrywide for the years 1988 (0.57%) to 1990 (0.35%) but there was an increase in 1991 although it remained well below the 5% MFR targeted in the program objective, In 1991, the filariasis control teams and the district multi-purpose teams collected a total of 167, 151 blood slides out of which 871 were found to be positive for microfilaria. To determine the true endemicity of filariasis in the country, the malaria district multi-purpose teams are also utilized to assist in probe surveys in new areas of the district. Two species of filarial worms, namely Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, and the mosquito vectors belonging to the Anopheles and Mansonia genera are involved in the transmission of filariasis in Malaysia. Monkeys and domestic cats are the reservoir hosts for the subperiodic strain of B. malayi.
MeSH terms: Animals; Anopheles/parasitology; Humans; Insect Vectors/parasitology; Malaysia/epidemiology; Culicidae/parasitology; National Health Programs; Wuchereria bancrofti/physiology; Incidence; Brugia malayi/physiology
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.
Studies on the social and behavioral aspects of filariasis transmission were conducted in the transmigration area of Kumpeh, in the province of Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Three methods were used in the study namely, interview, participation observation and focus group discussion. A total of 266 respondents (136 males and 130 females) were interviewed. The results of the study showed the most of the transmigrants were not familiar with the word "filariasis". They were more used to the name of "penyakit kaki gajah" or "elephant's leg" disease or "untut". The word "untut" is similar to what people of Selangor, Malaysia call this disease. The community attitude towards control efforts against filariasis was positive, as evidenced by their readiness in being bled and their readiness to help change the environment which serves as mosquito breeding places. Usually the transmigrants live in the "ladang" or dry farming area for 3-4 months to protect their crops from damages by pests. This habit was rather negative, because in their "ladangs" they exposed themselves to high risk of mosquito bites and thus to filariasis infection.
MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Animals; Attitude to Health; Culture; Educational Status; Emigration and Immigration*; Female; Filariasis/epidemiology; Filariasis/prevention & control; Filariasis/transmission*; Humans; Indonesia/ethnology; Indonesia/epidemiology; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Male; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control; Terminology as Topic; Rural Population; Health Behavior/ethnology*; Prevalence; Focus Groups
In Peninsular Malaysia, only Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are reported to cause human filariasis. Brugia pahangi infects many of the same animal hosts as the zoonotically transmitted subperiodic B. malayi. There is a well-recognized need for improved diagnostic techniques for lymphatic filariasis. Parasite antigen detection is a promising new approach, and it will probably prove to be more sensitive and specific than clinical, microscopic and antibody-based serological methods. We recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAb XC3) from in vitro culture products of adult B. pahangi (B.p. IVP). Filarial antigenemia was quantitated in various hosts including the sera from 6 Malaysian Aborigines with acute lymphatic filariasis. In hosts infected with brugian filariasis and dirofilariasis, antigenemia was scored ranging from 90 ng/ml to 960 ng/ml. None of the control animal and human sera had antigenemia above 90 ng/ml. In addition, MAb XC3 and B.p. IVP were applied in several seroepidemiological surveys among household cats in Kuala Selangor in order to correlate information gathered for future studies of possible cases of human infection. Out of the 81 cats surveyed, 10 (12.35%) and 5 (6.17%) were parasitologically positive for B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. However, 21 (25.92%) were antigenemia positive when serologically investigated with MAb XC3. Antifilarial antibodies to B.p. IVP by direct ELISA showed very high cross-reactivity with non-filarial gut worm infections. 16 (19.75%) cats had reciprocal titers ranging from 320 to 2,560. Only 1 (1.23%) cat from this group was antigenemic.
The genetics of human susceptibility to lymphatic filariasis, the genetic basis of filarial susceptibility in vector mosquitos, and the genetic constitution of human filarial parasites and their mosquito vectors are reviewed. It is evident that our present knowledge on the genetics of lymphatic filariasis is still very meagre. The need to study various genetic aspects of the disease is highlighted.