Contact lenses provide an alternative to spectacles for many people. However, the hazard of bacterial corneal ulcers exists. This article describes a soft contact lens wearer who developed a bacterial corneal ulcer. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for eradication of the infection and prevention of loss of vision.
The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with diabetic control among Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in a Felda settlement area. METHODS: We analyzed the anthropometric and metabolic data of sixty three NIDDM patients in Felda Sg Koyan, Raub, Pahang. Diabetic control, was measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1) and fructosamine; it showed a strong correlation (r=12.8 and p-0.001). With the use of a multivariate regression model, which was adjusted for sex, age, dhration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, we found that the occurrence of higher fructosamine was associated with significantly higher HbA1 (F =7.8, p=0.01). RESULTS: Obesity was present in 72% of diabetic patients with BMI>25 and had a mean duration of diabetes of 6+4 years. Mean HbAl among males (6.8 + 1.6%) were significantly different (p 0.05) to diabetic control. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that males have a better diabetic control than females. Poor control was observed among diabetics who had diabetes for more than five years.
MeSH terms: Blood Pressure; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Female; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Malaysia; Male; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Fructosamine
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity. Epidemiologic observations have shown an inverse association between calcium intake and incidence of eclampsia. Calcium supplementation has been reported to decrease blood pressure in pregnant women, although this remains controversial. The mechanism responsible for the effect of calcium on hypertinsion in pregnant women is unknown. This paper is a review of some of the recent calcium supplementation trials that have been carried out and their effectiveness in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.
This paper reviews the literature on blood pressure profile and hypertension studies carried out in Peninsular Malaysia from 1952 to 1988. From these studies, the following key information is summarised: 1. Blood pressure profiles of Malaysians, irrespective of sex and the three major ethnic groups viz., Malay, Chinese and Indian followed a similar rising trend with age. 2. The mean systolic and diastolic pressures were 134 mmHg and 84 mmHg respectively across the major ethnic groups. 3. The prevalence of hypertension for Malaysians was 16.0%, 4.2% and 3.4% when 140/90 mmHg, 150/90 mmHg or a diastolic pressure of 100 mmHg or greater were taken as cut-off values respectively. Males generally showed a higher prevalence of hypertension than females. 4. Orang Asli living in the deep jungle had relatively low blood pressures (Mean: 109/70 mmHg) and their blood pressure did not rise with increasing age. 5. There was generally no difference in the prevalence of hypertension amongst the major ethnic groups. However, there was a tendency for the Malays to have a higher prevalence of hypertension than the Chinese or the Indians. 6. There was an increased prevalence of hypertension among subjects who smoked heavily or who did very little or no physical exercise. Differences in prevalence of hypertension among subjects living in changing environment and lifestyle, such as urban versus rural, alcohol versus non-alcohol consumers and low income versus moderate income groups were not evident in the studies reviewed. 7. Percent unawareness of hypertension in hypertension subjects was generally high i.e. 57 % - 69% except in one sample which recorded a moderately value (33%).