A 2-year nationwide survey was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration to provide current information about filth, decomposition, and microbiological contamination of domestic and imported fresh and frozen shrimp. Whole or equivalent filth insects, mostly ants, were found in 14.4% of the samples. Of countries contributing at least 10 samples for filth analysis, India had the highest percentage positive for filth insects (45.5%); the United States had the lowest (6.3%). Filth insect fragments were present in 5.4% of the samples. Incidental insects were present in 6.3% of the samples, with flies the most commonly found. Of countries contributing at least 10 samples for filth analysis, India had the highest percentage positive for incidental insects (27.3%); Ecuador had the lowest (2.3%). Unidentified insect fragments were found in 33.3% of the samples; cockroach excreta pellets were present in 2.1%, rat or mouse hairs in 5.7%, and other striated animal hairs in 15.3%. Of countries contributing at least 10 samples for filth analysis, the Philippines had the highest percentages positive (30.0 and 50.0%) for rat or mouse hairs and other striated hairs, respectively; Malaysia was close behind with 23.1 and 46.2%. Samples from the United States had the lowest percentage positive for rat or mouse hairs (0.9%) and other striated hairs (7.2%). Listeria spp. were found in 6.8% of the samples; Salmonella spp. were found in 8.1%. Some level of decomposition was observed in 15.4% of the samples tested organoleptically.
MeSH terms: Animals; Animals, Domestic; Ants; Cockroaches; Diptera; Ecuador; Hair; India; Listeria; Malaysia; Philippines; Surveys and Questionnaires; Salmonella; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration; Mice; Rats
Affected members of 73 families with a variety of autosomal dominant late onset cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs) were investigated for the trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion which is found in pedigrees exhibiting linkage to the SCA1 locus on chromosome 6. Most of the families were too small for linkage analysis. The mutation was only found in ADCA type I, in 19 out of 38 such kindreds investigated (50%). It was slightly more common in Italian (59%) than British (50%) families, and was also found in Malaysian, Bangladeshi and Jamaican kindreds. Overall, ADCA type I patients with the expansion had a lower incidence of hyporeflexia and facial fasciculation than those without. The trinucleotide expansion was not found in eight families with ADCA and maculopathy or 24 kindreds with a pure type of ADCA, confirming that these syndromes are genetically distinct. It was also not detected in 12 patients with sporadic degenerative ataxias. DNA analysis for the SCA1 mutation is useful diagnostically in single patients or small families, and can be used for presymptomatic testing where appropriate.
Contact lenses provide an alternative to spectacles for many people. However, the hazard of bacterial corneal ulcers exists. This article describes a soft contact lens wearer who developed a bacterial corneal ulcer. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for eradication of the infection and prevention of loss of vision.
The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with diabetic control among Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in a Felda settlement area. METHODS: We analyzed the anthropometric and metabolic data of sixty three NIDDM patients in Felda Sg Koyan, Raub, Pahang. Diabetic control, was measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1) and fructosamine; it showed a strong correlation (r=12.8 and p-0.001). With the use of a multivariate regression model, which was adjusted for sex, age, dhration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, we found that the occurrence of higher fructosamine was associated with significantly higher HbA1 (F =7.8, p=0.01). RESULTS: Obesity was present in 72% of diabetic patients with BMI>25 and had a mean duration of diabetes of 6+4 years. Mean HbAl among males (6.8 + 1.6%) were significantly different (p 0.05) to diabetic control. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that males have a better diabetic control than females. Poor control was observed among diabetics who had diabetes for more than five years.
MeSH terms: Blood Pressure; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Female; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Humans; Malaysia; Male; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Fructosamine
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity. Epidemiologic observations have shown an inverse association between calcium intake and incidence of eclampsia. Calcium supplementation has been reported to decrease blood pressure in pregnant women, although this remains controversial. The mechanism responsible for the effect of calcium on hypertinsion in pregnant women is unknown. This paper is a review of some of the recent calcium supplementation trials that have been carried out and their effectiveness in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.