Antioxidants such as tocotrienols may protect against atherosclerosis since tissue injury from free radicals is a final common pathway of damage in arterial disease. In this study, the effects of tocotrienols on serum cholesterol, lipid peroxides, and aorta atheroma were assessed in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Tocotrienols were more effective than tocopherols in preventing increases in serum LDL (p = 0.03) and total cholesterol (p = 0.008) levels in the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Elevation of serum lipid peroxides was effectively suppressed by tocotrienols (p = 0.01). Both tocopherols and tocotrienols offered significant protection against atheroma in the rabbit aorta, but tocotrienols had a stronger hypolipidaemic effect.
Comment in: Pathmanathan R, Wong KT. Protection by tocotrienols against hypercholesterolaemia and atheroma. Med J Malaysia. 1995 Mar;50(1):117
We report here a case of severe iron deficiency anaemia resulting from prolonged exclusive milk diet without any iron supplementation. The patient was a 1112 year old boy, the only child of a factory worker, who was breasffed until 4 months of age followed by exclusive feeding by non-fortifiedformula. He presented with severe iron deficiency anaemia with haemoglobin of4 .0g% and required blood trans-fusion. Iron and.vitamin supplements were given and cereals were slowly introduced. He responded very well to the treatment with satis-factory weight gain and improvement of anaemia. (Copied from article).
We present a 12 year old girl with malignant fibrous histiocytoma and the suggested treat-ment of this rare condition would be excision of the tumour followed by systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy.
Foreign body ingestion in the majority of children is often witnessed or suspected and may present with vomiting or choking. An unusual mode of presentation with haemetemesis and maelena in a 10 month old child is described here.
The neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur (MHKL) was frequently understaffed and overcrowded. A separate special care nursery (called K5) was set up in July 1991 for the purpose of providing non-intensive neonatal care for infants. Mothers were simultaneously admitted and they provided a major bulk of feeding and nursing care. Case records for 2 months prior to and 2 months after opening of the ward were studied. The average duration of hospital stay per neonate was shorter in the later period (9.18 days vs 11.05 days, p < 0.05). Also the very low birth weight infants (VLBW) gained weight faster (28 grams a day) compared to similar infants in the earlier period (22 grams a day, p < 0.05).
MeSH terms: Body Weight; Child; Female; Hospitalization; Hospitals, Maternity; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal; Length of Stay; Mothers; Nurseries; Pregnancy; Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
26 cases of congenital hypothyroidism were diagnosed at the Penang General Hospital from 1979 to 1993. Therewere 19 femalesand7males, thefemaletomaleratiowas2 .7 : 1. All three main ethnic groups were almost equally afflicted (10 Chinese,8Malays,8 Indians). The mean age at diagnosis was 15.8 months (range 21 days — 9 years) and only 11 (42.3%) patients were diagnosed within thefirst three months of life. 19 (73.7%) patients were diagnosed within thefirstyear and 7 (26.3%) after the firstyear. The correct referral diagnosis was made in less than half (n = 11) of the patients, with a mean of 2.3 doctors being consulted prior to the diagnosis. The five most common clinical features were coarse facies (n = 22), dry skin (n = 22), macroglossia (n = 21), lethargy (n = 20) and constipation (n = 19). The develop-ment quotient was appropriate for chronologi-cal age in less than one third (n = 8) of patients while the school performance was at least average in only less than one third (n = 5) of school-goers (n = 16). The mean (SD) T4 at diagnosis was 23.7 (12.2) nmollL while the mean (SD) TSH at diagnosis was 72.7 (37.0) mUIL. In the light of these clinical findings, screening for congenital hypothyroidism with a view to early diagnosis and prompt treatment are strongly recommended.
MeSH terms: Constipation; Congenital Hypothyroidism; Ethnic Groups; Hospitals, General; Humans; Macroglossia; Physicians; Referral and Consultation; Facies; Life; Early Diagnosis; Lethargy
At the University Hospital only 24.3% of Malays, 3.8% Chinese and 5.9% Indians are fully breast fed at 6-8 weeks postnatally. The majority of Chinese infants are exclusively on infant formula (68.6%) and this holds true for the Indians (52.9 %).These figures were obtained 3-4 months after the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital. Comparing our data with previous studies we believe that there has been a decline in breast feeding in urban Kuala Lumpur, especially amongst the Indians and Chinese.
MeSH terms: Breast Feeding; Drive; Hospitals, University; Humans; Infant; Infant Formula; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
A case control study of the families of 35 physically abused and neglected children was conducted to examine some of the family characteristics and sociocultural factors which may contribute to physical abuse and neglect. The cases were matched for sex, ethnic group and as far as possible for age with children admitted to the children's hospital for other medical illness. Physically abused children were more likely to come from disrupted, reconstructed or single parent families and these children had separation experiencesfrom their families during early childhoodfor various reasons including periods of family crisis, parental death, financial difficulties, inability to cope with large family size and cultural beliefs and superstition. Social isolation, alcoholism and drug abuse were also shown to be statistically significant amongst these families.
MeSH terms: Physical Abuse; Alcoholism; Child; Child Abuse; Ethnic Groups; Family Characteristics; Hospitals, Pediatric; Humans; Social Isolation; Superstitions; Case-Control Studies; Single-Parent Family; Parental Death
In a retrospective analysis of paediatric referrals to a Neurology outpatients clinic, the largest single category of 47 patients (32%) presented with acute recurrent headache. There were 30 girls and 17 boys. Using conventional criteria 43 of the children could be classified as classical migraine ( 10 ), common migraine (20), basilar migraine (3), opthalmoplegic migraine (1) and tension headache (9). The 9 children with tension headache, all girls, had pain char-acteristics distinct from the rest, but in terms of severity and duration of headache attacks ,were similar to those with classical migraine, which is against the theory that tension headache and migraine are at different ends of the spectrum of the same process. These findings are consis-tent with recent adult data, but have not been noted in paediatric work. (Copied from article).
MeSH terms: Adult; Child; Female; Headache; Humans; Male; Neurology; Outpatients; Pain; Referral and Consultation; Rest; Retrospective Studies; Tension-Type Headache; Migraine with Aura; Migraine without Aura
This is a retrospective and descriptive study of 30 children and adolescents with conduct disorders diagnosed for the first time this year (1993) at the Child and Family Consultation Unit, UKM. Eleven of them were diagnosed to have a Socialized Conduct Disorder, 8 had symptoms of Unsocialized Conduct Disorder, whilst 4 had Conduct Disorder confined to the family context. Another 5 had Depressive Conduct Disorders while 2 had features of other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions. Most them were boys and were ten years old and above. The majority presented with at least one year history of illness and school authorities played an important role in being the main referral agency. Prominent abnormal psychosocial situations were inadequate or inconsistent parental control and discordant intro familial relationships. Socio-economic status and geographical differences were associated with the prevalence of the disorder. The main symptomatology found were disobedience and frequent lying, stealing, truancy and fighting or bullying.
MeSH terms: Adolescent; Aggression; Child; Depressive Disorder; Emotions; Family Relations; Humans; Deception; Male; Referral and Consultation; Retrospective Studies; Social Class; Theft; Prevalence; Conduct Disorder; Bullying
The earliest report of a dengue epidemic in the Malaysian Peninsula was from Singapore in 1901 (More, 1904). S. Kae' in 1902 described the next epidemic in Penang. In March 1954, an outbreak of febrile illness was reported at the Methodist Girls' School, Kuala Lumpur, from which dengue viruses were first isolated in Malaysia and identified as dengue type 1.2 However, the first report of the sinister dengue fever with haemorrhagic manifestations was made only in 1962 from Penang Island (Rudnick et al, 1965).3Parameswaran4 in 1965 described the clinical features seen in 41 cases admitted into the children's ward in the Penang General Hospital. Several of the early isolates were of dengue type 2. (Copied from article).
The mercury controversy related to dental amalgam is still continuing. In Malaysia, part of, this controversy has been attributed to a recently - introduced dental amalgam claimed to be non-mercury releasing and causing no mercury toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this amalgam, Composil, was indeed non-mercury releasing. Six specimens each of Composil and a control (GS-80) were incubated at 3TC in deionised-distilled water. The daily mercury release was determined over a four-week study period using the stationary cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometric method. The mean mercury release of Composil was 30.9 Ilg/cm2/ 24hr whilst that of GS-80 was 0.9 Ilg/cm2124hr and the difference was found to be highly significant (P < 0.00l). Results of this study therefore did not substantiate the manufacturer's claim. The release of mercury from amalgam restorations and their implications in clinical practice were also discussed.
The clinical severity of the mutations causing beta-thalassaemia in West Malaysia is presented. Thalassaemia clinical scores (Thal CS), a scoring system, has been formulated to predict clinical severity. It is the type of beta-thalassaemia mutation present that decides on the clinical phenotype. The most severe beta-thalassaemia mutation is assigned a score of 4. A score of 8 indicates a severe thalassaemia phenotype. Alpha-thalassaemia, increased synthesis of Hb F, and glucose-6-phosphate deficiency may ameliorate the clinical condition at phenotype level, and the co-inheritance of hereditary ovalocytosis aggravates it.
The outcome in 148 inborn meconium-stained neonates was studied prospectively over a 5-month period. Fifty-three infants (38.5%) developed meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). There was a significantly higher rate of MAS (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.016) and hospital stay (p < 0.016) in neonates with meconium in the trachea than in neonates with no meconium in the oropharynx. The incidence of MAS was significantly higher and the duration of hospital stay longer in outborn than in inborn infants (p < 0.022).
The prevalence of ocular abnormalities was studied in 165 children from a Malaysian school for the deaf. Ninety-five children (57.6%) had one or more ocular abnormalities. Rubella retinopathy was the commonest form of ocular abnormality (35.2%). Refractive errors were found in 23 children (13.9%). Refractive errors in the rubella group were significantly more common than in the non-rubella group of deaf children (p < 0.001) (chi 2 test). Thirteen children had congenital anomalies causing significantly impaired vision. Ophthalmological examination of deaf children helps in the detection of cases with rubella eye signs and thus helps to identify the cause of deafness. Since deaf children are at greater risk of visual and ocular abnormalities, periodical ophthalmological examination should be carried out in these children.
By a combination of PCR and direct-cycle sequencing using consensus primers, we analyzed approximately 400-bp fragments within the NS3 genes of twenty-one dengue virus type 3 strains isolated from five neighboring Southeast Asian countries at different time intervals from 1956 to 1992. The majority of base disparities were silent mutations, with few predicted amino acid substitutions, thus emphasizing the strict conservation of the NS3 gene. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of these nucleotide differences revealed distinct but related clusters of strains from the Philippines, Indonesia, and strains from Singapore and Malaysia of the 1970s and early 1980s, while the Thai cluster was relatively more distant. This genetic relationship was compatible with that proposed by other workers who have studied other dengue 3 virus genes such as E, M and prM. However, we observed that the more recent, epidemic-associated dengue 3 strains from Singapore and Malaysia of the late 1980s and early 1990s were more closely related to the Thai cluster, implying their evolution from the latter, and emphasizing the importance of viral spread via increasing travel within the Southeast Asian area and elsewhere. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the NS3 genes of dengue viruses can serve to advance the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses.
Trace elements, such as As, Co, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Zn, were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA), whereas Cd, Cu, and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) in clam, crab, prawn, swamp cerith, and mussel samples after digestion by microwave heating under controlled conditions before eluting the solutions through a column of a chelating resin, Chelex-100. The standard used in the determination of percentage volatile elements retained by microwave digestion and also in the activation process was Lobster Hepatopancreas TORT-1, whereas known mixed standards were prepared from nitrate salts to determine the efficiency of the separation procedure at a controlled pH. Mercury and lead detected in crabs exceeded the maximum permissible level. Some species also showed a high affinity toward certain elements, and their levels of accumulation in the tissues of these species corresponded with the concentration of these elements in sediments, especially at sites in the vicinity of an industrial zone.
MeSH terms: Animals; Chromatography, Ion Exchange; Crustacea/chemistry*; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Ion Exchange Resins; Liver/chemistry; Nephropidae; Malaysia; Mollusca/chemistry*; Neutron Activation Analysis; Pancreas/chemistry; Spectrophotometry, Atomic; Trace Elements/analysis*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
Fish has been known as a source of nonoccupational mercury exposure to fish-consuming population groups. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families residing in an industrialized area in Penang and a nonindustrialized area in Terengganu were analyzed for mercury by neutron activation. The range, arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median of the mercury concentrations for the groups in Penang and in Terengganu were 0.45-16.68, 3.61, 3.49, and 2.96 and 6.79-18.31, 12.08, 11.69, and 12.05 mg/kg, respectively. Somewhat lower values than from the Penang group were found in a group from Selangor consisting mainly of office workers. The group in Penang took about 40-100 g of fish/d, whereas the group in Terengganu consumed twice as much. This shows that hair mercury levels depend on a fish consumption pattern, and not on the location of the population. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish-consuming population groups worldwide.