• 1 Department of Forest Products and Utilization, Forest College and Research Institute, Hyderabad 502279, Telangana, India
  • 2 Department of Forest Products and Utilization, Forest College and Research Institute, Hyderabad 502279, Telangana, India; Centre of Advanced Materials, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. Electronic address:
  • 3 Research Center for Biomaterials, National Research and Innovation of Indonesia, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia; Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
  • 4 Natural Composites Research Group Lab, Department of Materials and Production Engineering, The Sirindhorn International Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering (TGGS), King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), 10800 Bangkok, Thailand
  • 5 International College (MJU-IC), Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand
  • 6 Faculty of Forest Industry, University of Forestry, 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 7 Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, 96001 Zvolen, Slovakia
  • 8 Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 234 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Sci Total Environ, 2023 Mar 15;864:161067.
PMID: 36565890 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161067


The uncertainties of the environment and the emission levels of nonrenewable resources have compelled humanity to develop sustainable energy savers and sustainable materials. One of the most abundant and versatile bio-based structural materials is wood. Wood has several promising advantages, including high toughness, low thermal conductivity, low density, high Young's modulus, biodegradability, and non-toxicity. Furthermore, while wood has many ecological and structural advantages, it does not meet optical transparency requirements. Transparent wood is ideal for use in various industries, including electronics, packaging, automotive, and construction, due to its high transparency, haze, and environmental friendliness. As a necessary consequence, current research on developing fine wood is summarized in this review. This review begins with an explanation of the history of fine wood. The concept and various synthesis strategies, such as delignification, refractive index measurement methods, and transparent lumber polymerization, are discussed. Approaches and techniques for the characterization of transparent wood are outlined, including microscopic, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, the characterization, physical properties, mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal conductivity of transparent wood are emphasized. Eventually, a brief overview of the various applications of fine wood is presented. The present review summarized the first necessary actions toward future transparent wood applications.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.